Rain hose irrigation uses a flexible hose with small holes to deliver water to your crops. The pipe is UV treated making it suitable for indoor and outdoor use. Rain hose manufacturers use nano punching technology to make the holes on the pipe. The rain hose can emit water at a uniform rate at every pore. At Eunidrip Irrigation Systems, we have rain hoses with diameters of 32, 40, and 50 mm. Each rain hose irrigates in opposite direction at varying radii. The wetting radius of the 32, 40, and 50 mm rain hoses are 3, 5, and 7 meters respectively.

Rain hose irrigation is suitable for short crops or crops in nurseries. You should not use this irrigation method for crops prone to fungal infections when their leaves are exposed to water. Examples of such crops are lettuce, beans, chili, tomatoes, etc.

Some of the advantages of using this irrigation method are:

  1. This irrigation method is cheaper than other methods of overhead irrigation.
  2. They are easy to install and maintain.
  3. It requires less capital to start than drip irrigation.
  4. They can cover wide areas.

Components of a rain hose irrigation kit

The components of the rain hose irrigation kit are:

  1. Endcaps – to seal off the rain hose ends.
  2. Starter connectors – you use them to connect the rain hose to the main water line.
  3. Mini valves – you use them in place of starter connectors to connect the rain hose to the main water line.
  4. Pipe connectors – to join the rain hoses.

Rain hose irrigation layout procedure.

The first step is to lay down the main pipe from the pump or tank on the farm. In the next step, you make holes on the main pipe depending on the location you want your rain hose. The diameter of the hole should be guided by the size of starter connectors or mini valves. Place the starter connectors or mini valves on the holes and connect the rain hose to them. Use pipe connectors to join two rain hoses if need be. Finally, close off the rain hose ends with an endcap.

Rain hose pipe sizes and prices

At Eunidrip Irrigation Systems, we offer the best quality rain hose pipes for your farm. We pride ourselves on providing satisfactory services and high-quality products to clients. We sell rain hose irrigation components to farmers who would like to individually assemble the parts, but we recommend having an experienced professional set up the system for you. Our prices are customer and pocket-friendly, feel free to contact us on 0728163329.  The prices of available rain hose pipes in our shop are:


Rain hose size (mm) Wetting radius (m) Length (m) Cost per 100 m
32 3 100 KES. 3,700
40 5 100 KES. 4,700
50 7 100 KES. 5,700

Interested farmers can purchase our products at our shop located at George Morara Road, Nakuru town, or through our online shop. We make sure your products will arrive in the best condition for purchases made through our online shop.





Birds can be a nuisance to your crops on the farm, or in your home. Eunidrip irrigation systems bird nets are affordable and will help you control these pests. Our bird nets are capable of controlling up to 100% of the birds. 

Features of bird nets


Some of the features of bird nets include:

  1. They are ultraviolet treated assuring the farmer there will be no damage from the sun.
  2. They come either in green, black, or white. White bird nets help reflect away the sun’s radiation and also assist control insects on a small level. Green bird nets camouflage with the plants. 
  3. Our bird nets come in standard widths of 4 metres
  4. The holes in the nets are large. 

Factors to consider when selecting a bird net

There are two main factors you should consider when selecting a bird net. These are the size of birds you are keeping out, and the purpose of the net. Smaller birds will need bird nets with small holes. Always go for a small mesh bird net in case you are not sure of the bird species you are keeping out. Bird nets with large holes are more appropriate for areas with strong winds. 

Application of Eunidrip Irrigation Systems bird nets

Bird net use is not restricted on the farm alone. There are various places you can use them. Some of the applications of bird nets include;

  1. In fish ponds – Birds are natural predators of fish. It is best to cover your fishpond with a bird net to avoid predation. 
  2. On the farms – many birds prefer to feed on the fruits of most crops, e.g., strawberries, passion fruits, plums, etc. Install a bird net around your farm to prevent damage to your products on the farm.
  3. Greenhouse – you should place your bird net on the greenhouse sides to prevent bird entry. These greenhouses usually don’t have insect netting on the side. 
  4. Building protection – prevents birds from flying inside.
  5. Mining ponds – mining companies use chemicals to extract minerals from rocks. These chemicals are harmful to living organisms. You should use bird nets to prevent birds’ exposure to the chemicals. 

Benefits of Eunidrip Irrigation Systems bird nets

  1. Eunidrip irrigation systems bird nets offer a humane and effective way of controlling birds. 
  2. The bird net installation can be customised to meet your application area.
  3. Bird nets are ultraviolet treated guaranteeing you a service life longer than 3 years.
  4. It is a cost-effective way of controlling birds.
  5. These bird nets don’t block light from entering your building or greenhouse.

We have a professional team that can advise you on the appropriate bird net to use. You can purchase our bird nets from our shop located at George Morara Road, Nakuru town, or via our online shop. Our website is easy to navigate, and we can assure you your goods will be delivered on time. In case of any inquiry, you can contact us on 0728331629


Greenhouses are structures that help farmers control the growing environment of the crops. These structures can either be made from wood, plastic, or steel. Eunidrip irrigation systems is a company renowned for its quality steel greenhouses. These greenhouses can be automated, increasing the efficiency of operations. Factors that you can control automatically inside the greenhouse include temperature, humidity, carbon dioxide, water, pests, light, and nutrients.  

Greenhouse Steel Structures

Selection of the size and design of steel greenhouses.

Two major factors determine the size of the greenhouse you select, i.e., the space available and the cost. Large greenhouses will need more money than small greenhouses. The smallest greenhouse we can build measures 4 m by 5 m. The available steel greenhouse designs are saw tooth, gable, raised dome, flat arch, and tunnel. The designs vary depending on the outcomes you desire inside the greenhouse. Our staff can easily advise you on which design to use for your greenhouse. 

Why should you choose steel greenhouses over wood greenhouses?

The following are reasons why you should choose our steel greenhouses;

  1. Steel-framed greenhouses are not affected by rotting or termite attacks.
  2. Steel has high strength, meaning you can use smaller pieces than in wood greenhouses. 
  3. These greenhouses last for a long time.
  4. They are easy to maintain. 
  5. The steel frame uses small elements, reducing shade in the greenhouse.

Steel greenhouses materials

You will need the following material to build your steel greenhouses.

  1. Greenhouse covering – you should use greenhouse polythene since it is cheap and easy to repair. The greenhouse polythene can be clear or yellow-green.  
  2. Profiles and wires hold the greenhouse polythene tightly on the frame.
  3. Tapping screws – you need these to bolt the profiles to the steel frame. 
  4. Steel pipes – to form the frame of the entire greenhouse.
  5. Locks – to lock the greenhouse door.
  6. Concrete – for strengthening the greenhouse foundation.
  7. Insect net – to allow air into the greenhouse while keeping insects away.
  8. Drip irrigation kit – this kit supplies water to your crops. 

Cost of steel greenhouses

The cost of steel greenhouses depends on the size of the greenhouse. At Eunidrip, we design, supply, and install steel greenhouses at the following charges. 

Greenhouse construction costs
Size Steel greenhouses 
8 m × 15 m KES 200,000
8 m × 20 m KES 235,000
8 m × 24 m KES 255,000
8 m × 30 m KES 300,000
8 m × 40 m KES 480,000
8 m × 48 m KES 500,000
16 m × 24 m KES 500,000
16 m × 30 m KES 550,000
16 m × 40 m KES 890,000

These charges cater to the materials and labour of the whole structure. The charges also account for a drip irrigation kit. We have a professional staff that can advise and build steel greenhouses suitable for you. You can purchase items through our online shop or our physical shop located at George Morara Road, Nakuru town. Contact us on 0728331629 in case of any assistance.


Tomatoes demand lots of water to achieve maximum yield, and drip irrigation is the best way to supply the required amounts. Eunidrip Irrigation Systems is among the leading tomato drip irrigation suppliers in the country. Our high-quality drip irrigation kit will help you deliver the appropriate amounts of water reducing wastage. The kit we offer also comes equipped with a fertigation unit, which will help you deliver the right quantity of nutrients to the plants. We have qualified technicians who can customise the irrigation layout depending on your farm. 


tomato drip irrigation by eunidrip (1)

Components of tomato drip irrigation kit

Our tomato drip irrigation kit comes equipped with:

  1. 30 cm spacing dripline – tomatoes are normally spaced 30 cm from each other and this dripline is the best for the job. The size of the dripline will depend on your farm size.
  2. 16 mm HDPE fittings – these fittings include elbows, tees, end caps, starter connectors, drip to drip connectors, and rubbers. The number of pieces to purchase depend on the number of drip lines you have.
  3. HDPE pipes – the size of pipe to choose from depends on the size of the farm. Our HDPE pipes come in sizes of 16, 20, 25, 32, 40, 50, 63, and 90 mm.
  4. Water filter – you must use a filter together with your drip irrigation to avoid emitter clogging. You can use either disc or screen filters in your system. Disc filters are more appropriate for large water flows while screen filters are suitable for small to medium flows. The main pipe diameter determines the size of the filter you will need. 
  5. Water tank – You should install your water tank on the highest point of the farm and on a raised platform. This will help create enough pressure to deliver the water by gravity. The size of the water tank will depend on the size of the farm. 
  6. Fertigation system – a small water tank and a venturi injector make up the fertigation unit. 
  7. HDPE fittings – these fittings help in joining the pipes together on the farm. They include saddle clamps, tees, couplings, elbows, adaptors, and end caps. The size and number will depend on the design.

Why our drip irrigation kit is the best for your tomatoes.

Tomatoes are sensitive plants that need to be taken care of carefully to avoid losses in yields. Our tomato drip irrigation kit will help you secure your investment by reducing the errors in water and nutrient supply. Other advantages that you get when using trickle irrigation on your farm are:

  1. Improved health – your tomatoes will be protected from diseases caused by excessive water.
  2. Reduced pumping and fertilizer costs.
  3. A decrease in weed growth.
  4. There will be a decrease in the labour requirements. 
  5. Time-saving.

All interested clients can visit our shop located at George Morara Road, Nakuru town or contact us on 0728163329. We have catered to those who aren’t able to access our physical shop through our online shop. The website is user-friendly and our prices are always fair.



Strawberries are bright red, sweet, and juicy fruits grown for direct consumption or addition to other foods, e.g., pies. They are high-valuable crops grown for export or local markets.

Questions to ask your self before planting strawberries in a greenhouse ?

  1. Why should I grow my strawberries in a greenhouse?
  2. How to grow strawberries in a greenhouse?

Experienced strawberry farmers can effortlessly know the answer to these two questions, but it will be challenging for new farmers. This article aims at helping new farmers know about strawberry farming in greenhouses and where to acquire the necessary help.

Varieties of strawberries grown.











The type of strawberry grown in Kenya is the day-neutral type. These strawberries produce fruits as long as there is light, meaning they are not affected by short and long days. Day-neutral strawberries go dormant during winter, and Kenya, being in the tropics, doesn’t experience winter. The lack of winter in the tropics means day-neutral strawberries can produce fruits throughout the year.

There are various varieties of day-neutral strawberries you can grow in Kenya. These types include;

  1. Chandler variety – these types of strawberries have high yields with big fruits. They take about 62 to 75 days to produce fruits with firm skin and quality flavour.
  2. Pajaro – they grow fast and produce fruits that are big and with good flavour.
  3. Fern – The fern variety is a high-volume variety with large light-coloured fruits.
  4. Selvia – these strawberries are small-sized compared to other types. They have good flavour and bright colours.
  5. Aiko – the fruits of the Aiko variety are large, long, and conical. They are pale red and are a bit sweet. The main advantage of this variety is its large harvest and resistance to transport.
  6. San Andreas – These strawberries produce fruits during the whole year. The plant is resistant to most common diseases and makes dark red fruits. To maintain high yields in the plants, you must cut the many runners. In Kenya, they are popular around Nyeri.
  7. Douglas – These plants mature very early and have clear foliage. The fruits produced are orange-red, with firm flesh, quality flavour, and long conical shape.

Environmental conditions for strawberry growth

Strawberries grow in areas having temperatures ranging from 200C to 300C. In regions having temperatures above 300C, flowering and fruit production will be significantly affected. The pH of the soil needs to be between 5.5 and 6.5. Soils with high pH will affect iron intake, reducing the final yields. Strawberries are reactive to salinity during transplanting. High levels of alkalinity in the ground will result in the plant leaves yellowing. You should check the salinity and alkalinity levels for optimum yields. Strawberries need areas with adequate amounts of water.

Factors to consider when growing strawberries

Factors to consider when growing strawberries in greenhouses include;



Strawberries require about 36 to 45 cm of water to cater to plants’ needs for the entire growing season. The plants have shallow roots meaning you have to apply adequate water due to evaporation. The best way to supply water to the strawberries is by using drip irrigation. Drip irrigation helps in water conservation by providing only the required quantities. Too much water will result in the spread of diseases, whereas too little water will lead to water stress, reducing the yields. The advantage of using drip irrigation is that the system can also supply nutrients in appropriate amounts to the plants.

Soil type

Strawberries do well in a variety of soils. The soils need to be deep, well-drained and have high organic matter. Clay soils are heavy soils with good water retention capabilities. However, using clay soils in strawberry farming is not advisable since there will be waterlogging that can spread diseases. Using coarse sandy soils will lead to high irrigation and fertiliser application expenses—the high-cost results from the high infiltration rates and infertility of sandy soils.

Surface drainage

It would be best to have good surface drainage to avoid water accumulating on the farm. Strawberries are sensitive to moisture, and a lot of water results in diseases and the death of the plants. In the case of strawberry farming in areas with poor infiltrating soils, it can help to raise the beds. The height of the bed should be a minimum of 15 cm.

The soil pH

Strawberries grow well in soils that are a bit acidic, having a pH of about 5.0 to 7.0. Before embarking on strawberry farming, you should first know the pH of the soil on your farm. Institutions such as Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organisation (KALRO) carry out soil tests and give you a complete soil analysis. The soil sample should be dry and have stayed long without fertiliser application. At times the researchers can ask you about the plant history on the farm. So, it is best to keep that in mind.

The soil analysis report shows a complete review of the composition of nutrients in the soil and the pH. Using this report, an agronomist can easily advise you on what fertilisers to use to ensure optimal soil growing conditions. You can correct too low pH in the earth using lime and high pH using green manure or acidic fertilizers.


These plants need a gentle slope to allow water to flow out of the farm area. At Eunidrip, we recommend a gradient of less than 10%. Growing strawberries on slopes of more than 10% will lead to erosion, with some plants being uprooted or even buried. The shallow roots of the strawberries make them very easy to remove from the ground. You can still grow strawberries on steep slopes if you have no choice. Your plants will be okay as long as you plant them in rows across the hill and have a wide row width.


Sunlight is an essential requirement for strawberry growth on farms. Strawberries need at least six hours of sunshine in a day for high yields. Whether growing your strawberries on the open field or in a greenhouse, you should ensure no large trees nearby can block the sun. Placing your strawberry farm away from trees also reduces water and nutrient competition. The sunlight also helps in giving the strawberries their deep red colour.

The strawberry variety

There are various varieties of strawberries available, with each variety having its pros and cons. Before engaging in strawberry farming, you should consult on the best variety to grow within the specified region. The variety you choose should also be certified to avoid diseases on the farm.

Other crops

It would be best if you do not plant strawberries in areas where certain types of plants have been grown in the previous four years, i.e., potatoes, carrots, tomatoes, eggplants, alfalfa, and beans. These soils contain diseases and pests that can attack your strawberries. It would help if you first fumigated the earth to kill the pests and disease agents using such soils.

Why choose to grow strawberries in greenhouses?

Many farmers know that the environment greatly affects the outcome of their crops. When growing crops on the farm, it can be difficult to control factors such as temperature and humidity. Strawberries are high-value crops, and you need to ensure maximum care to reap maximum rewards. The use of a greenhouse gives you more control of the growing environment of the strawberries. In a greenhouse, you can control the temperatures, humidity, water loss, quality of light and pests and diseases. It reduces the risks involved in farming. At Eunidrip, we deal with greenhouses and we can also teach you how to grow strawberries in a greenhouse.

Strawberry farming and practices

Some of the strawberry farming practices done in the greenhouse include:


Propagation refers to ways in which new strawberry plants are formed. You can propagate strawberries using three methods. These methods are;

  1. Plant division – this is achieved using the crown of the strawberry. The crown is a short and thick part of the strawberry that emerges from the soil. It is usually a few millimetres long and contains a lot of roots. The crown emerges naturally, or you can induce it by pruning. This method is labour intensive and requires technical skills. If you don’t do it carefully, you can risk killing the parent plant.
  2. Seed propagation – seed propagation involves planting strawberry seeds. It would be best if you did not use the seeds from a purchased strawberry because low-quality plants will emerge. The low-quality plants are a result of crossbreeding. You will need to purchase certified seeds from agro-vets to propagate using seeds. Certified seeds reduce the risk of disease spread and ensure high-quality plants.
  3. Propagation by runners – runners are stolons that protrude from the strawberry stem. They grow in various directions, and when the nodes touch nutritious soils, new roots start to develop at that point. As the roots develop and the plant anchors itself properly on the soil, you can cut the runner separating the new plant from the parent plant. Propagation by runners produces an identical plant to the parent plant. This method is the easiest method of propagation than the others.


Before planting the strawberries, you should add adequate organic matter to the soil. If crops such as tomatoes and potatoes were grown before, you fumigate the soil before planting anything. You can plant strawberries either on raised beds or flatbeds. The two planting systems used for flatbeds are hill rows or matted rows. The matted system involves planting the strawberries 60 cm apart in a row and 120 cm between the rows and allowing the runners to spread and grow within the rows. This method produces a lot of fruits even though they are of poor quality.

The hill row system involves the removal of runners from the planted strawberries. This ensures the parent crop receives adequate nutrients and can produce large fruits of high quality. The strawberries in hill row systems sprout multiple crowns increasing the number of fruits produced. Plant spacing in the hill row system is 30 cm between the plants and 60 cm between the rows.

The growing point of strawberries is near the soil surface. Placing the plants too deep can result in the rotting of the crown. It would help if you irrigated the plants after immediately planting to avoid killing off the new plants.


You can mulch strawberries using organic mulch or plastic mulch. Organic mulch involves using plant materials like straws, leaves, cut grass, etc. The use of organic mulch requires frequent replenishment as it decomposes with time. At Eunidrip, we recommend using plastic mulch in your greenhouse, especially for long-term use. The combination of plastic mulch and drip irrigation in greenhouse strawberry farming ensures minimal water use and optimum growing conditions for your plants. The advantages of using plastic mulch are;

  1. Controlled weed growth
  2. Reduced water losses by evaporation
  3. Increased crop yields
  4. Reduced soil erosion
  5. Improved crop health
  6. Soil temperature control

Pest and disease management

Pest and diseases are the major causes of poor-quality strawberries. Examples of pests affecting strawberries are aphids, birds, crown borers, cutworms, slugs and snails, wireworms, spider mites, and tarnished plant bugs. The common diseases affecting strawberries include powdery mildew, Leathery rot, red root rot, grey mould, fungal leaf spots, and blossom-end rots.


Strawberries achieve pollination by using wind, animals, or hand pollination. When carrying out greenhouse strawberry farming, it is best to place a hive near the greenhouse to permit pollination by bees. This method is much more effective than hand pollination. Some of the benefits of strawberry pollination include:

  1. There is an increase in yields.
  2. Cross-pollination reduces deformations in the plants.
  3. Pollination by bees results in more appealing fruits.
  4. Strawberries from plants that have undergone cross-pollination are much larger than those which self-pollinate.


Strawberries need protection from rainfall, slugs, and birds. Birds love the sweet taste of the fruits, whereas the slugs enjoy feeding on the strawberry leaves. Growing your strawberries in the greenhouse helps control these three problems. Rainfall causes the leaves on the plants to drop. In the case of field farming, you can use bird nets and copper ribbons to protect against birds and snails, respectively.

Strawberry greenhouse automation

Greenhouse automation is useful when it comes to commercial strawberry farming. In an automatic greenhouse, you can control the temperature, humidity, water, nutrients, carbon dioxide, and pests.

Temperature control

Temperature control inside a strawberry greenhouse is achievable using thermometers to detect the temperature changes in the greenhouse. A computing system then controls the temperature using a heating or cooling system within the set range. It would be best to keep the temperature between 200C and 300C when farming strawberries. Plastic mulch helps control the soil temperature.

Water control

When farming strawberries, you use drip irrigation in the greenhouse to ensure an efficient water supply to the plants. Automatic greenhouses use timers to control the amount of water supplied to the plants. The timers can be mechanical, electronic or hybrid. Using timers, you can set when to start the irrigation and stop after how long. Sensors can help in more accurate control of the amount of water supplied. The sensors can detect the amount of water in the soil and initiate irrigation when the water levels fall below the set threshold.

Humidity control

The Humidity refers to the amount of water vapour in the greenhouse environment. Humidity affects the rate of water loss in the plants. High humidity levels, especially at night, will result in gaseous water condensing on the greenhouse material and dropping to the ground as water droplets. Strawberries are very water-sensitive, and these droplets can result in the development of diseases. In automated greenhouses, you achieve humidity control using the ventilation, humidifying and dehumidifying systems. Sensors detect humidity levels in the greenhouse, and when they go beyond the set values, either of the three systems is activated.

Nutrient control

Strawberries prefer slightly acidic soils. Excessive use of fertilisers can result in the pH of the soil going up above 7.0 or below 5.0 depending on the type of fertiliser. Other effects of excessive use of fertilisers include leaching of nutrients, pollution of water sources, chemical burning of crops and mineral depletion in the soil. In strawberry greenhouse farming, you can achieve controlled fertiliser application using a fertigation system. The fertigation system is an arrangement that enables diluted fertiliser to be delivered to the plants using irrigation. Sensors in the soil monitor the substrate quantities in the soil in automated greenhouses. The sensor alerts the computer when the substrate quantities go below the set quantity. The computer, in turn, activates the fertigation system, which delivers the diluted nutrients to the plants.

Pest control

Strawberries are fruits that have a high value. They are mostly grown for export and need to comply with the phytosanitary requirements of the exporting country. Pest control in a greenhouse is much easier than in the field. Insect nets help prevent insects from entering the greenhouse. Pesticide application inside the greenhouse is also much more effective than field application. Pest control in automated greenhouses uses cameras to detect the presence of pests or signs of pest infestation. When they are detected, you are alerted, and you can proceed with the necessary measures.

Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide is an important gas that helps plants in photosynthesis and development. To improve the yield of strawberries, you can add a carbon dioxide system in the greenhouse. You can use sensors to measure the carbon dioxide levels in the greenhouse and alert the computer when to add more gas. Burning fossil fuels and using liquid carbon dioxide are the two main ways of adding carbon dioxide to your greenhouse. Burning fossil fuels is a cheap method of the two, but you risk damaging your plants. Liquid carbon dioxide is expensive but the safest method.

What are the advantages of growing strawberries in greenhouses?

The following are the advantages of growing strawberries in a greenhouse:

  1. Pest and disease control
  2. Efficient water usage
  3. Reduced labour costs
  4. High quantity and quality yields
  5. Plant protection against the elements like the wind.
  6. Reduces the risks of farming.

Eunidrip Irrigation Systems as a greenhouse designer, supplier and installer.

We are a reputable greenhouse equipment supplier in Kenya. We design, supply and carry out the installation of greenhouses all over Kenya. Also, we have a professional team available to answer your questions concerning strawberry greenhouses: What type of materials to use? Which row arrangement should I use? Which type of irrigation can I use? How to grow strawberries in a greenhouse?

Apart from greenhouse construction, we also deal with all irrigation equipment supply and installation, shade house construction, borehole drilling, water harvesting structures and dam lining.

Why choose Eunidrip Irrigation Systems.

We are amongst the major irrigation and equipment suppliers in the country. Our product line keeps evolving with time, ensuring we offer the best solutions to the farmers. We have well-established clients, and we can transport equipment anywhere within the country. We strive to ensure we continue providing high-quality services, and value our customers’ feedback. Our website is easy to navigate, and you can select the necessary equipment you need.

Our prices are customer-friendly, and you can also contact us on 0728163329 or visit our shop at George Morara Road, Nakuru town.



Irrigation is the best way to ensure continuous food production with an ever-increasing population. However, when designing large irrigation schemes like a 100-acre irrigation design, we must take a lot of care when deciding the components to use to avoid risks of failure. Irrigation schemes of this size can use one type of irrigation method or two or more methods depending on the crops grown.

Water uses for different crops

Plants need water for growth and cooling purposes. It is essential to know the water use, why plants use water, and the factors affecting water use in irrigation. By knowing this, you can be able to avoid over-irrigation and under-irrigation. Crop water use entails two processes, i.e., evaporation and transpiration. The two processes are customarily combined and referred to as evapotranspiration. Transpiration is water loss through the leaves’ stomata, whereas evaporation is water loss through the wet soil or plant leaves’ surface. Plants extract water from the soil using the roots.

Evaporation occurs in the upper soil surface (depths of 3 cm to 5 cm). The evaporation rate is high during the initial stage of crop development, but as the crop grows, the canopy increases, offering shade to the soil surface. The shade helps reduce the evaporation rate in the mid and late stages of crop development.

Uses of water in plants

Plants use water for the following purposes;

  • To cool the plant by transpiration.
  • Photosynthesis – it is a process by which plants make food.
  • Transport of nutrients and organic matter.
  • Germination
  • Support system – plants achieve this by helping the plants’ cells remain turgid.

Crop water use determination

We determine crop water use by measuring changes in the soil water content with respect to time. However, the methods involved are tedious, expensive, and time-consuming. We use the crop coefficient and the reference evapotranspiration to quickly determine crops’ water use. The crop coefficient depends on the crop grown and the growth stage of the crops planted. Reference evapotranspiration refers to water use based on the prevailing weather conditions in an area. For instance, Crop water use is an important element when determining the water requirements in a 100-acre irrigation design.

Factors affecting the evapotranspiration rates

The following factors affect the rate of water use in an area;

  1. Solar radiation – stomata are sensitive to solar radiation. The amount of radiation affects how wide the stomata open, affecting water loss through transpiration. Solar radiation also affects evaporation rates. The higher the solar radiation, the more the evaporation rates
  2. Air temperature – plants use transpiration to cool the plant. Increased air temperature means high transpiration rates.
  3. Plant species – different plants have varying growth periods and water uses.
  4. Growth stage of plants – a fully matured plant will need more water than a recently planted crop. There are three growth stages of plants, i.e., initial stage, mid-stage, and late stage. At the initial stage, the water demand is low, and water loss is mainly through evaporation. In the mid-season stage, the water demand increases because of the flowering and fruiting of the crops. In the late stage, water demand depends on the desired plant conditions during harvesting. If you want fresh produce, the water demand remains the same as the mid-stage. For dry harvested produce, we reduce the water application to achieve that.
  5. Wind – the presence of the wind increases the evapotranspiration rate. The wind removes moisture from the air creating room for more moisture.
  6. Relative humidity – when there is high humidity, the rate of evapotranspiration is low. The water loss rate is increased when the humidity is low.
  7. Degree of surface cover – evaporation is mainly through the soil surface. A high degree of surface cover implies that the evaporation rate will be reduced.


The pump house


The pump house in a 100-acre irrigation design refers to a building built to hold the components of the pumping unit. It is used to protect the pump from external conditions such as freezing. There are two primary water sources, i.e., surface water and groundwater. Surface water refers to water that collects on the ground or in streams, lakes, rivers, oceans, and reservoirs. The surface water is used to replenish the groundwater. Groundwater is water that collects in the spaces between rocks and soil. Groundwater is usually of high quality, but it is best to measure the amounts of iron and manganese in the water. Measurement of these elements is done since they can block drippers or sprinkler nozzles when the concentration in water is high.

Components of a pumping system in a 100-acre irrigation design

The pumping system in a 100-acre irrigation design composes of the following components;

  1. The pump – the function of the pump is to transfer water for irrigation from one point to another.
  2. Prime mover – the prime mover is the source of power for the pump. It can be electric motors, diesel/petrol engines, or an air system.
  3. Piping – to convey the irrigation water into and out of the pump system.
  4. Valves – control the flow of water into the piping network.
  5. End-use equipment – refers to the component that uses pumping power. It can be a heating system, sprinklers, drip emitters, etc.

Pump power sources

The type of power source to choose for your pump depends on the availability and accessibility of the power source. However, power sources for water pumps are electricity, diesel/ petrol, and solar power. Electricity is best used for areas with reliable electricity supply. In addition, advantages of using electricity are reduced labor costs, and the system has high efficiency.

We use diesel/ petrol-powered generators for areas with no or unreliable electricity supply. Solar-powered pumps save on energy costs. Their power depends on solar radiation, and the initial cost of installing the system is high. By installing batteries, you can save the power available during the day and use it to run the pump when the solar radiation is low or at night.

The pump

The function of the pump in a 100-acre irrigation design is to push water through the system. It is essential to know the different components of a pump. This knowledge is advantageous when it comes to replacing worn-out or damaged parts. The members of a pump are;

  1. Casing – the casing is the outer shell of the pump. Its principal function is to protect the inner components from external conditions. The material used to make the housing should be firm and resistant to harsh external conditions.
  2. Impeller – consists of a rotating disc connected to a shaft with a set of vanes. The disc rotates, creating the energy required to induce flow in the system
  3. Motor – this component is the power source of the pump. It can be alternating current (AC) or direct current (DC) powered, fuel, hydraulic, solar, or steam powered.
  4. Shaft – the shaft connects the impeller to the motor. It transmits the power to the impeller creating the necessary force to induce flow.
  5. Volute – it is the inner casing that contains the impeller. It collects and discharges the irrigation water.
  6. Bearing assemble – offer mechanical support allowing continuous impeller rotation.
  7. Hub – the hub forms a connecting part for the engine.
  8. Seal – the seal protects the bearing assembly from the irrigation water.

Types of pumps

There are various types of pumps available in the market. The choice of type of pump depends on the use, power source, and the power of the pump. For a 100-acre irrigation design, you will need to use a powerful pump to achieve the necessary flow rates. Types of pumps available in the market include;

  1. Floating pumps – they are submersible or turbine pumps attached to a float. The pump hangs beneath the float, and the pump delivers water through a pipe connecting to it.
  2. Booster pumps – manufacturers build these pumps primarily for improving water pressure in the system.
  3. Turbine pumps – consists of a centrifugal pump mounted underwater and connected to a motor on the surface. These pumps are excellent and efficient for use in large schemes.
  4. Submersible pumps – submersible pumps are placed at the bottom of the water source. Unlike turbine pumps, the pump and motor are part of a single unit.
  5. End suction centrifugal pumps – they are widespread in the market. Manufacturers mount the pump at the end of a motor and it requires priming before the first use. The pump has an advantage in portability since it is easy to carry.
  6. Centrifugal pumps – these pumps use an impeller to create the necessary force to push the water up the system. They need priming before the first use.
  7. Displacement pumps move water through displacement. Examples of these pumps are rotary and piston pumps.

Factors to consider when selecting a pump for a 100-acre irrigation design.

The wrong choice of a pump in a 100-acre irrigation design can have profound financial implications. Purchase of a low-performance pump will mean the water supply to the plants won’t be enough resulting in yield losses. A high-performance pump will mean more pumping costs. The factors to consider before purchasing a pump for irrigation are;

  1. The pump discharge – discharge refers to the amount of water the pump supplies.
  2. The pressure – refers to the internal energy of water due to pressure on the pipe walls.
  3. Suction head – it refers to the distance a pump can suck water from a water source.
  4. Friction head – friction head is the loss in water pressure resulting from friction between the flowing water and the pipe walls. Irrigation pipes’ length, diameter, surface smoothness, and material affect the friction head in an irrigation system.

Estimated flow rate across a 100-acre irrigation scheme

To estimate the flow rate across a 100-acre irrigation design, we firstly determine the crop water requirements. Precisely, the crop water requirements vary depending on the species, growth stage, and environmental conditions. Crops grown in hot areas will need more water than those in cool regions. Water demand is usually expressed in terms of depth. To get the total volume of water required per day we multiply the total area by the crop water demand. Assuming the crop water demand is 6mm/ day, the volume of water plants need in a day is.

Volume of water plants need in a day (100-acre) =  × 400,000 m2

                                                                                                          = 2400 m3/ day

Assuming 20 hours of irrigation in a day, then the daily volume of water we need is;

Flow rate per hour =  = 120 m3/hour.

Using drip irrigation in this area with a flow rate of 2 liters per hour and spacing of 0.2 m by 0.6 m on the laterals, we can obtain the application rate.

Water application rate =

You can get the application time by dividing the crop water demand by the application rate, i.e.,

Application time =  = 0.375 hrs/ 22.5 minutes

If the field is irrigated as one whole field, then the discharge we need will be;

Estimated flow for the whole field=  = 6400 m3/ hr

To get the number of shifts that you can use, you divide the crop water requirements with the application time.

Number of shifts =  = 16 shifts

If we divide the plot into 16 plots, each irrigated in one shift, then the area and discharge of each shift are;

Area per shift =  = 6.25 acres

Discharge per shift = 6.25 × 4,000 m2 ×  = 150 m3.

To get the flow rate per shift, we divide the discharge per shift by the application time.

Estimated Flow per shift =  400 m3/ hr

Estimated irrigation hours for a 100-acre irrigation design

To get the actual irrigation hours you will need for a 100-acre irrigation design using the above requirements, we use the number of shifts and application time.

Estimated irrigation hours = the number of shifts × application time.

= 16 shifts × 0.375 hrs

= 6 hours

Use of automation for cost efficiency

We automate irrigation systems to ensure efficient water and nutrient supply to the plants. The system carries out irrigation operations with no or minimal human intervention. Automatic systems use sensors, timers, or computers to control the water and nutrient flow in the system. The system uses sensors to determine the right time to apply fertilizer and water to the plants. The sensors send the information to the computer, which decides when to irrigate depending on the data. Irrigation timers are the brain of an automatic irrigation system. Timers can be mechanical, electronic, or hybrid.

Automatic irrigation systems reduce the labor cost on a farm. The computer decides when to irrigate and supply nutrients depending on the data collected. This reduces the labor needed to operate the farm. The system releases water to the plants in the right quantities reducing water wastage. Efficient water use means less water pumping. This helps reduce the pumping costs. The system also controls the fertilizer application, reducing wastage and saving on costs.

The incorporation of a pest detection system helps detect the presence of pests early on. Control of the pests early on is much easier and cost-effective. An automatic system helps increase the quantity and quality of yield. The risk of losses is reduced significantly, ensuring farmers get returns on their investment. The use of automation in 100-acre irrigation design is necessary to help reduce production costs.

Size of filtration unit for 100-acre irrigation design

Filtration is the removal of suspended contaminants from irrigation water to avoid blocking the system. Water quality determines the filtration requirements, chemical injection, and management of the filtration system. The filtration system blocks three main groups of contaminants, i.e., biological, chemical, and physical contaminants. Biological pollutants include algae. Chemical contaminants include scale or precipitates, while physical contaminants include grit or suspended soil particles. To determine the filtration system, water emitters, and maintenance programs in a 100-acre irrigation design, you should conduct a water analysis.

The types of filters available for irrigation systems are;

  1. Media filters – media filters use sand and gravel to remove contaminants. We use them in surface water sources, especially in wastewater treatment. They are more suitable for the removal of organic compounds. Backwashing cleans the media filters.
  2. Disc filters – these filters contain a series of flexible, grooved discs stacked together. The screen size ranges from 40 to 400 mesh and is best suited for high flow rates. They are capable of cleaning physical and biological contaminants. Although when cleaning organic pollutants, they clog faster than when removing sand particles. They utilize little water when backwashing than other filters.
  3. Screen filters – they use a flexible or rigid wire woven screen to separate contaminants from water. Depending on the size of the filter, washing can either be done manually or by backwashing. We use screen filters when the amount of contaminants is little to average.
  4. Hydro-cyclone sand separators – these centrifugal filters separate water according to the difference in densities. They are helpful when separating large particles, i.e., 50 microns or larger, from irrigation water. The filter contains a sand collector at the bottom, which is easy to open and clean. Irrigation water filtration using this filter can be made more efficient by combining its use with screen or disc filters.

Filtration variables in a 100-acre irrigation design.

Several variables affect the type of filtration system to use. Some of these factors are;

  1. The flow rate – the irrigation system’s water flow rate will determine the cartridge’s size and the size of the filter inlet and outlet. The pipe sizing mostly determines the size of the inlet and outlet.
  2. Differential pressure – this refers to the difference in water pressure between the inlet and outlet of the filter. We consider the housing and cartridge differential pressures for irrigation systems sensitive to pressure drops.
  3. Location – the space available for the filter will determine the size of the filter.
  4. Viscosity – this factor determines how water flows in the filter and the pressure the system needs to push the water through the filter. High viscosity means high pressures to push irrigation water through the filter. The downside to this is that the increased pressures can force some of the contaminants through the filter.
  5. Contaminants – Different filtration systems have their advantages when it comes to filtering out various contaminants. Disc filters are suitable for high volumes of water while media filters are more suitable for filtering organic contaminants.

Determination of filter size for a 100-acre irrigation scheme.

The filter for use in a 100-acre irrigation design should be able to filter out contaminants from the water without any problems. The factors to consider when selecting the size of filter to use are the inlet and outlet dimensions, the pressure rating, the type of filter, and the mesh size. The mainline pipe diameter determines the size of the filter to use. This filter already has the requirements to meet the flow from the diameter of such a pipe. The area is large; hence you will need large pipes to handle the pressures and volumes of water. We recommend the use of disc filters when the discharge is high.

Automatic fertigation system

Fertigation is the injection of fertilizers, amendments, or other water-soluble products into an irrigation system. Automatic fertigation systems deliver just the right amounts of water and fertilizer at the root zone of the crops. The system uses sensors in the soil to detect soil moisture levels and substrate quantities. When the substrate quantity in the ground is low, a signal is sent to the computer, which supplies current to the solenoid valveMoreover, the solenoid valve enables the mixing of dissolved fertilizer with the irrigation water. Since solenoid valves are fast, the efficiency of the automatic fertigation system is high. The solenoid valves to use in this system are three-way solenoid valves.

The advantages of using automatic fertigation systems in 100-acre irrigation design are;

  1. High yields – use of sensors and timers ensures the plants get the required quantities of water and fertilizer, increasing the yields.
  2. The system is convenient – the farmer must not be present to activate the system. It is done automatically, and monitoring the system through the phone or computer is possible.
  3. Smart irrigation timers and sensors enable some systems to vary the amount of fertilizer application throughout the growing period depending on the demand.
  4. Optimization of fertilizer application – sensors monitor the substrate quantity in soil and alert the computer when the level goes low. The computer then allows fertilizer application.
  5. Cost -saving on production – an efficient fertilizer supply reduces wastage, reducing the amount of fertilizer you use.
  6. Reduced nutrient leaching – the system only supplies the required quantities of fertilizer to the plants. This reduces the leaching of nutrients into the soil.
  7. Automated fertigation systems provide the farmer with the fertilizer use data enabling the farmer to make well-informed decisions concerning fertilizer application.

Soil health in relation to the automatic application of fertilizer

Continuous planting and harvesting of crops gradually decrease the nutrients available in the soil. To ensure continuous high yields, farmers use either fertilizers or natural decomposition to replenish the soil nutrients. Fertilizer application is a preferred way of replenishing nutrients since it is fast-acting and a farmer can add specific nutrients depending on the deficit. Fertilizers help ensure adequate food supply in the world. However, overuse of chemical fertilizers has serious consequences on soil, animals, plants, and human health. The increasing population poses a threat to food security; hence the need to improve agricultural production. One way of doing this is by using automatic fertigation systems. Not only does it ensure plants get adequate nutrients, but it also protects the environment from the harmful effects of fertilizer overuse.

 Some of the harmful effects prevented by the use of automatic fertigation systems are;

  1. Increased soil acidity – an increase in soil acidity reduces the crop intake of phosphate, raises the concentration of harmful ions, and inhibits crop growth.
  2. Humus content reduction – a loss in humus content reduces the ability of the soil to store nutrients.
  3. Over-application of nitrogen fertilizers for long periods kills the balance between the three macro-nutrients. These nutrients are nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. The loss in nutrient balance will result in reduced yields.
  4. Toxic build-up of heavy metals in the soil – continuous overuse of certain fertilizers can result in tox metal build-up. These toxic metals are uranium, cadmium, and arsenic. The heavy metals pollute the soil and they can accumulate in the fruits, grains, and vegetables. When we consume these products, serious health issues can arise.
  5. Pollution of water sources – overuse of fertilizers will result in washing away of excess fertilizer by leaching or runoff. The water will direct the fertilizer to underground water sources or surface water sources. Fertilizer presence in water sources results in excessive growth of algae which use up oxygen in the water when they respire and decompose. An increase in the number of algae reduces the oxygen available in the water leading to the deaths of fish.

The use of automatic fertigation helps prevent all the problems mentioned above. Lastly, this system ensures plants get fertilizer in the right quantities and time avoiding overuse. It helps ensure proper soil health conditions while increasing the yields.

The pressure rating on mainline and subsequent laterals in a 100-acre irrigation design.

Irrigation pipes deliver water through the entire irrigation system. They make up a large portion of an irrigation system, making their selection very crucial to the operation of the scheme. In a 100-acre irrigation design, the pipes should be able to withstand the maximum operating pressures and convey water without excessive pressure loss or gain. You should ensure proper connection at pipe joints to avoid pressure loss through leakages. The selection of mainline pipes is dependent on economics, friction loss, and flushing concerns. During flushing, the piping network should be able to withstand the flushing velocities. Flushing velocities are usually about 0.3 m/second.

The prices of pipes available at Eunidrip irrigation systems are;

Irrigation pipe prices
Pipe diameterCost per meter
16mmKES. 27
25 mmKES. 45
32 mmKES. 70
40 mmKES. 90

Pressure rating recommendations on laterals.

The pressure at the laterals will differ depending on the irrigation method. Drip irrigation and subsurface irrigation usually have low water pressures at the laterals. Sprinkler irrigation and center pivot irrigation experience high water pressures at the laterals.

The recommended size of lateral pipes for drip irrigation
Length of lateralsLateral flow rate
 2 L/hr4 L/hr8 L/hr
40 m -50 m12 mm12mm12 mm
40 m -70 m12mm12 mm16 mm
60 m -80 m12 mm12 mm16 mm
80 m -120 m12 mm16 mm20 mm
90 m – 120 m12 mm16 mm20 mm

Irrigation methods applicable in a 100-acre irrigation design

Irrigation is the artificial application of controlled amounts of water to assist in crop production or grow landscape plants. It is one of the methods preferred nowadays to increase food production. The advantages that arise from using irrigation in crop production are;

  • Increased quality and quantity of yields.
  • Soil erosion prevention.
  • Improved crop health.
  • Optimization of fertilizer usage.
  • Inhibits weeds growth.
  • Eliminates water deficiency.
  • Acts as a shield against famine.

There are various irrigation methods available that are applicable in a 100-acre irrigation design. The major irrigation methods available are; surface, sub-surface, drip, sprinkler, and center pivot irrigation. At Eunidrip Irrigation Systems, we supply and install all irrigation types available. We have qualified and well-trained staff and you can be assured of high-quality work.

Surface irrigation

Surface irrigation involves the application of large volumes of water by the force of gravity over a farm. Types of surface irrigation methods you can use are basin, furrow, and border irrigation. We use surface irrigation methods in soils with poor infiltration rates, i.e., clay soils only. There is some earth movement involved when building bunds or trenches to control the water flow in the areas. Water flows into the irrigation area and is controlled by the use of gates or pipes. The use of surface irrigation methods is mostly applicable where there are large volumes of water and the available soils are clayey. The methods are relatively cheap to install, but they do not conserve water and a lot of it is lost to the atmosphere.

Sub-surface irrigation

Sub-surface irrigation is a method that delivers water directly into the soil layers. It can be either natural or artificial. People cannot control natural sub-surface irrigation since it involves water seeping from underground water, lakes, streams, or rivers into the soil. It is a cheap method but it is not possible to control the amount of water supplied to the plants. Artificial sub-surface irrigation involves the supply of water to the plant root zone by the use of pipes underneath the soil. The main advantage of this system is that you eliminate water losses through evaporation. We normally use this method in areas with hot climates or areas where there are inadequate amounts of water. Problems encountered when using this method are possible leakages in the pipes due to rodents or heavy machinery. This method is feasible in a 100-acre irrigation design since it conserves moisture reducing water pumping costs.

Drip irrigation

This method is the best for irrigation in terms of water conservation. We can apply it in a 100-acre irrigation design depending on the crops. Drip irrigation involves the supply of controlled amounts of water at the root zone of the plant. Emitters deliver the water to the plants at an average rate of two liters per hour. The emitters are sensitive to blockages; hence you will need to filter the water before entering it into the piping system. When it comes to designing the 100-acre farm, the layout of the pipes depends on the topography and shape of the farm. The basic rules are, that you should place the mainline along the slope and laterals across the slope. The use of this method has many advantages such as increased yields, controlled weed growth, reduced soil erosion, reduced labor costs, efficient use of fertilizers, and control of pests and diseases.

The initial costs of installing this system are high, however, the savings done on production costs afterward are worth it. At Eunidrip Irrigation Systems, our installation cost of drip irrigation per acre varies depending on the number of driplines per bed.

Drip irrigation cost per acre
Number of driplines per bedCost
2KES. 165,000
3KES. 180,000

Sprinkler irrigation

Sprinkler irrigation makes use of sprinkler nozzles to distribute water in the form of artificial rain. The sprinklers can apply a uniform amount of water over a large area depending on the type of sprinkler. When using this system, earth movement is not necessary. You should use a filter to remove contaminants that can block the sprinkler nozzles. The choice of this method in a 100-acre irrigation design depends on the crops grown, the weather conditions dominant in the region, the type of soil, and available funds. precisely, You cannot use sprinkler irrigation to grow water-sensitive plants like beans and tomatoes. This is because these plants tend to get sick when exposed to too much water on their leaves. The climatic conditions of an area affect the efficiency of water application using sprinklers. In windy areas, there is a non-uniform application of water on the farm.

Sprinkler irrigation

Sprinkler irrigation is most suitable for areas with sandy soils. This is because the water will infiltrate more quickly reducing the amount of water lost through evaporation. Sprinklers need pumps to achieve the high pressures necessary to distribute water. The introduction of pumps means increased production costs in irrigation. Despite the pumping costs, this method is very efficient depending on the usage. Its use can assure you of high returns. However, to ensure the long life of sprinkler irrigation, you should follow the necessary maintenance practices. At Eunidrip irrigation systems, we can help you know where to use sprinkler irrigation, and supply and install the whole system at affordable prices. The cost of installing a sprinkler irrigation system on a one-acre farm starts from KES. 150,000.


center pivot irrigation systems

Center pivot irrigation

Center pivot irrigation uses sprinklers or a series of sprinklers that rotate about a pivot. These systems are fully automated and the system covers a large area. Water application varies along the length of the pipeline with more water being applied at the end of the pipeline than near the pivot. Some more advanced systems use GIS and GPS to map out the area and distribute water according to the demand in each area. The use of this irrigation system demands large vast areas making it suitable for use in a 100-acre irrigation design.

Crops that you can grow using this method are sugarcane, orchards, maize, potatoes, small grains, alfalfa, and vegetable crops. The major factor that affects the choice of this system is the cost. Center pivot irrigation has a high starting and operational cost. Truly, this limits its use to commercial farmers only. Before deciding on using center pivot irrigation, you should ensure you have enough information to reduce risks. Eunidrip irrigation systems have experienced staff who can advise you on center pivot irrigation, helping you secure your investment. Pivot irrigations are large irrigation projects that require large areas starting from 100 acres. The cost of installation of center-pivot irrigation ranges from KES. 3,000,000 to KES. 10,000,000 depending on the area and equipment.

Eunidrip Irrigation systems’ role in the design, supply, and project implementation.

Eunidrip irrigation systems is amongst the leading irrigation companies in Kenya. We deal in irrigation, greenhouse design and construction, borehole drilling, shade net structure development, and plastic mulch supply. We also offer products as well as consultation services to ensure our clients get customized solutions to their needs.

In irrigation, we design, supply, and install all types of irrigation systems. We deal with various sizes of projects from a quarter an acre to 100-acre irrigation designs. We offer customer-friendly prices for all our products. Our customers can access us through our online shop or our physical store located at George Morara Road, Nakuru town. You can also contact us through our telephone lines or via WhatsApp in case of any inquiries.

Water harvesting

Water harvesting- dam liners in kenya

The increased pollution of freshwater sources has resulted in less clean water for domestic and industrial use. Water harvesting helps manage floods and supply water for daily use.  Water harvesting refers to collecting, treating, and storing rainwater or storm water. Storm water harvesting involves accumulating, treating, and storing water collected from creeks, gullies, ephemeral streams, and catchment areas from developed surfaces, e.g., roads, parks, and playgrounds.  Rainwater harvesting involves the collection and storage of precipitation from roofs.

Components of a water harvesting system.

We make use of the following components to collect rainwater effectively.

  1. The catchment area – it is used to collect rainwater. It can either be natural, e.g., gulleys, creaks, and streams, or artificial, e.g., rooftops.
  2. Conveyance system – transports the collected water from the catchment zones to the recharge zones. We use gutters and drains for rainwater collection.
  3. Flush system – flushes out the first spell of rainfall collected. The first spell of water collected contains a lot of contaminants.
  4. Filter – for filtering the collected rainwater removing pollutants.
  5. Tanks and recharge stations – the primary purpose of recharge stations is to store collected rainwater.

Factors affecting the amount of water harvested.

The amount of rainwater and storm water harvested varies greatly depending on the following factors.

  1. The quantity of runoff within a catchment. The greater the runoff, the more the water harvested.
  2. Availability of technology – improved technology ensures we can easily collect more water.
  3. The capacity of the storage tanks – large tanks enable more water-saving than small tanks.
  4. Impact of the environment – areas with a hot climate will evaporate some of the water.
  5. Type of roof, slope, and materials – the type of roof and slope determine the amount of water collected. The material used determines the quality of water collected.
  6. Frequency, quantity, and quality of rainfall
  7. Speed and ease of infiltration through the subsoil – fast infiltration rates mean less runoff hence less water collected. Clay soils are more favorable for collecting runoff than sandy soils.

Types of water harvesting systems

Water harvesting systems come in designs varying from simple to complex structures. The types of rainwater harvesting methods available are;

Water butt

Water butt harvesting systems collect water from natural rainfall or drain pipes. Collected Water is mainly used for watering the plants.

Indirect pumped

This water harvesting system does not rely on gravity to supply water to the outlets. The owner pumps the water collected to the tanks. The use of pumps means you can place the tank at any height. Tank placement at any height enables great flexibility to adjust the flow and pressure of water according to the requirements of a building.

Directly pumped

Directly pumped uses pumps to supply the water collected to the building. The systems can use submersible or suction pumps. Water backup from the main supply must be directed to the underground tank first before being pumped for use. We install the submersible pump in the underground tank, whereas the suction pump is placed within the control unit of the house. Using suction pumps means we don’t need to be direct water from the main supply to the underground tank. The suction pump can deal with the backup and water from the underground tank. Submersible tanks are much more efficient than suction pumps.

Indirect gravity

These water harvesting systems supply water to the outlets by gravity alone. Water collected is first pumped to the header tank, usually located at a high point. Water then flows by gravity to the outlets. The pump only works to deliver the water to the header tank.

Gravity only

These water harvesting systems use gravity only to deliver the water. The tank needs to be located below the gutter system and above the outlets. This system is energy efficient since there is no usage of pumps. It saves on costs.

Retention ponds

We usually use retention ponds to collect runoff. These ponds improve water quality through natural processes .g., sedimentation, solar disinfection, decomposition, and soil filtration. We use concrete and mud to make the base of the retention tanks, and the water is used for watering the livestock, groundwater recharge, irrigation, etc.

In-ground storage

In-ground storage systems make use of underground tanks. Their use is widespread in areas that receive rainfall in a single season. The tanks are insulated, reducing the rate of evaporation, and the water doesn’t freeze if placed below the frost line. These systems make use of electric pumps to deliver water to the outlets.

Techniques of water harvesting

We use the following techniques in water harvesting methods, i.e., rain barrels, dry systems, wet systems, and green roofs.

Rain barrels

This method is common in many households. It is easy and affordable to install, and the tanks can store significant amounts of water. The water tank is placed below the downspout of the gutter systems. The conveyance system directs the water to the water tank. Water collected can be used for domestic use or in drip irrigation systems.

Dry systems

Dry systems are similar to rain barrel systems, only larger tanks are needed, and the gutters divert water to the large tanks. The use of this technique is quick and cheap to implement.

Wet systems

In these water harvesting systems, you place the tank and collection pipes underground. The collection pipes are connected to the downspout of the gutter system and directed to the underground tanks. The tubes need proper maintenance to reduce the chances of leakage.

Green roof

Green roof techniques don’t need storage tanks. The water collected is directed to gardens or farms directly. This technique involves installing drainage systems from the roof to the garden. The maintenance costs of this method are low.

Design criteria for rainwater harvesting

Proper water harvesting designs ensure that the collected water is enough to cater to the required needs. Factors to consider when designing a rainwater harvesting system are;

  1. The use of the harvested water – the intended use of the harvested water affects the design of the harvesting system. If you want harvested water for indoor and outdoor use, then more precision is used to maximize on the available rainfall.
  2. Reliability of the system – you will need a reliable method if the water demand is high and the supply is low. Reliable systems maximize the available rainfall collecting as much as possible.
  3. Size of catchment area needed – the roof size determines how much water will be collected.
  4. Location of the catchment area relative to the intended use
  5. Required size and type of storage – the volume of water to be stored should exceed the demand.

Determination of water demand.

To determine the storage size and the system to collect rainwater, you should compute the total water demand. If you use rainwater for indoor use, it is easy to calculate the average volume of water used within the house. You can calculate water for irrigation from the plants’ water demand. Plant water demand varies greatly depending on the growing stage, the type of plants, and the soil type of an area. You may need the help of agronomists to help you determine the exact quantities required.

Determination of how much water can be captured

The amount of water to be captured is determined by the size of the catchment area and rainfall received. Not all water collected during storms is conveyed to the storage tanks. Water losses occur through evaporation, splash outs, loss during the first flush, overshoots from gutters in heavy rains, and leaks. The roughness of the collecting surface also affects the quantity of water collected. Roofs with rough surfaces trap rain in their pores, and the water is lost through evaporation. Water harvesting efficiency is also limited by the inability to collect all the water during heavy rainfall. The system loses water as an overflow when the storage tanks are full. For these reasons, we usually use 75% to 90% efficiency when computing the volume of water collected.

When computing the total water capturing surface, we consider the total area of the roof surface. We take into account areas supplied with guttering systems. Also, we use these surfaces because only these areas can collect the water for use. We take the total roof surface regardless of the slope.  To compute the total monthly volume of water collected by a roof, we multiply the monthly average rainfall received in the area by the entire roof surface area.

The total volume of water collected per month = Total roof surface area × average monthly    rainfall received × Efficiency of water collection (ranges from 75% to 90%)

We design the catchment and storage capacity to be able to cater to the demand during the most prolonged interval period without rain.

Effect of different roof materials on the quality of water harvested.

We mostly recommend the use of metal roofs in water harvesting. Water harvested using metal roofs tend to have less fecal matter bacteria concentration than other materials. Concrete tiles and cool roofs also harvest quality water with fewer bacteria. Water harvested from green and shingle roofs tends to have high dissolved organic carbon concentrations. The high organic carbon concentrations will result in high concentrations of disinfection by-products after chlorination.

Storage tanks

Storage tanks are expensive compared to other components of a water harvesting system. The tank’s purpose determines the materials, size, and location. The tank size should be proportional to the monthly water demand, monthly rainfall, and the size of the catchment area. We place tanks either underground or above the ground depending on; the surrounding landscape, underground utilities, costs, aesthetic preferences, and the capability of the foundation soils to support the tank.

Underground tanks need the construction of maintenance holes to allow easy repair and maintenance. We place above-ground tanks on flat surfaces so that the ground can withstand the tank’s weight full of water.  At Eunidrip irrigation systems, we have qualified engineers who can advise you on which concrete mixture to use to support your tank. Above-ground tanks should be opaque to prevent algae growth and degradation because of ultraviolet light. Common materials used to make tanks are plastics, concrete, wood, fiberglass, and galvanized metal. Each material has its advantage over the others.

First-flush diverters and inlet protection

The level of cleanliness of water harvesting depends on the water use. Water for drinking will need to be cleaner than water for washing. Screen filters are usually fitted at gutter inlets to remove large particles like sticks and leaves. First-flush is the first part of rooftop runoff that contains a high concentration of contaminants. The first flush is diverted away from the tank using first-flush diverters. The diverter prevents water from flowing into the tank until its chamber is full. The first-flush diverter should divert 10 liters per 24 meters square of the catchment area.

We use gutter screens and roof-washers together with the first flush diverters to prevent mosquito breeding and sediment build-up in the tank. Roof-washers use large screens that remove large debris, and we place them between the first flush diverter and the tank. We use calming inlets to minimize bottom sediment disturbance where the water enters the tank.

Conveyance system

Gutters, downspouts, and pipes make up the conveyance system.  It is recommended the gutter system should be able to carry the runoff of the 100-year/1-hour rain event. PVC, seamless aluminum, and galvanized steel are materials used to make the gutter and pipe systems. Guidelines to follow when designing the gutter system during water harvesting are;

  1. The slope of the gutters should be about 0.5%
  2. It would be best if you use expansion joints 18 meters or longer
  3. Limit horizontal conveyance pipe bends to 450.
  4. Place gutter hangers 0.9 meters in the center.
  5. One downspout per 15 meters of the gutter length
  6. Cleanouts on horizontal conveyance pipes every 30 meters.
  7. Slope of 2% of horizontal conveyance pipes

Overflow pipe

The overflow pipe directs water from a full tank while preventing soil erosion in the region. The pipe is installed at the top part of the tank and designed to handle the same flow as the gutter system for effective functioning. You can direct the excess water to gardens or nearby water sources.

Outlet pipe and distribution system

We recommend installing the outlet pipe at least 15 centimeters from the bottom of the tank. The outlet pipe draws water from the tank to the distribution system. You may need a pump to provide enough pressure to deliver the water. You can use solar pumps, diesel/petrol pumps, or electric pumps.

Maintenance of water harvesting systems

  1. Removal of the first flush after every storm.
  2. Inspection and repair of screens
  3. Remove debris from the roof, gutter screens, roof-washers, leaf guard, and first-flush diverter after water harvesting.
  4. Storage tank draining once per year to remove sediments
  5. Servicing of the pumps
  6. Emptying the rain barrel during winter to prevent freezing
  7. Cleaning out the tank using a bleach solution and then rinsing it afterward.

Modern methods of water harvesting

Modern water harvesting methods have made it easier, cheaper, and more effective to harvest rainwater. Some of the modern ways of rainwater harvesting are;

  1. Rainwater overhead tanks – the tank is installed over the building or on a terrace and collects water as it flows. It is an expensive method.
  2. Ferro-cement tanks – these tanks need sand, cement, mild steel bars, galvanized iron, and wire mesh. They have a low cost, and you can make them into any desired shape. They are highly effective for use in high rainfall regions.
  3. Rainwater syringe – we use these tanks mostly in coastal regions. Rainwater collected is stored in pressure tanks and uses pipes to convey the water to depths below sea level. You can harvest the collected water using simple piston pumps during the summer season. This method helps recharge and dilute groundwater.
  4. Groundwater dam – we construct water dams in regions where the groundwater level varies. Firstly, Build a dam to distract water flow and create a reservoir. During rainstorms, water percolates into the ground adding to the pool. Also, advantages of this system are air pollutants don’t contaminate the water, and you avoid water loss by evaporation.
  5. Rainwater harvest for individual houses – involves water harvesting from a person’s roof and storing the water in tanks or wells.
  6. Rainwater harvesting for group houses – this system involves the collection of rainwater from roofs in an estate and storing the water in tanks available for everyone’s use.
  7. Raindrops – this method is cheap and helps with pollution by plastic bottles.  Furthermore, this system allows water bottles to be attached to a gutter system, helping water harvesting.
  8. Watree – a watree looks like an upside-down umbrella. The shape allows for water collection in playgrounds and parks. The watree directs the collected water to storage tanks.

Advantages of water harvesting

The advantages of water harvesting are;

  1. Decreased water demand helps preserve the already scarce freshwater.
  2. Improves quantity and quality of groundwater as in the rainwater syringe system, which helps dilute the coastal salty water.
  3. Landscape irrigation does not need a filtration system saving on costs.
  4. Easy to operate, install and maintain.
  5. Reduces stormwater runoff, flooding, soil erosion, and surface water pollution by pesticides and metals.
  6. Promotes water and energy saving.
  7. Reduces the need for imported water.
  8. Promotes water and energy conservation.

Disadvantages of water harvesting

  1. Unpredictable rainfall.
  2. Poor storage systems
  3. Regular maintenance is necessary.
  4. Requires some technical skills for installation.
  5. Limited and no rainfall can limit the supply of water.
  6. If not installed correctly, it may attract mosquitoes and other waterborne diseases.
  7. One of the significant drawbacks of the rainwater harvesting system is storage limits.

Solenoid valves for sale

Solenoid valves for sale use an electrical signal to control the flow of fluids. Precisely, We use solenoid valves to open, close, mix or distribute fluids with two or more openings. Using solenoids in fluid control is fast and effective. They require clean liquids or gases to operate at optimum levels. Application of solenoid valves includes heating systems, compressed air systems, vacuum, automated irrigation, and car washes.

Components of solenoid valves 

Solenoid valves for sale contain two major parts, i.e., the solenoid and valve body. The components of the solenoid valve are;

  1. The valve body –  Contains features that allow the solenoid to attach to the line.
  2. Coil windings –  Composed of a wire wound around a magnetic core. However, the function of the coil is to move the plunger, restricting and blocking media flow in the valve.
  3. Plunger – this is an iron-made cylindrical part that moves to open and close the valve. The plunger controls the movement of media in the valve.
  4. Inlet valve – opening that allows media flow into the valve. Solenoid valves can have one or more inlets.
  5. Outlet valve – refers to an opening that allows the media to flow out of the solenoid valve. Solenoid valves for sale can have more than one outlet.
  6. Solenoid coil – the solenoid coil is the body of the valve coil. It is hallowed, round, and made from a metal body.
  7. Solenoid spring – The function of the spring is to provide the tension needed to keep the plunger in position.
  8. Lead wires – Lead wires convey current from the power supply to the electrical valve circuit.
  9. Orifice – is located between the outlet and inlet of the valve.
  10. Sealing disc – Provides the part that shuts down the valve. The gasket should be able to resist corrosion and kept clean.
  11. Diaphragm – Diaphragms is used in pilot-operated solenoid valves because it close the central orifice from the action of pressure difference.
  12. Armature tube – It’s a hollow part that guide plunger when moving up and down. Furthermore, keep it free from dirt to reduce heat damage to the plunger.

Types of solenoid valves for sale

There are various types of solenoid valves for sale. We generally group solenoid valves according to their application, shape, and construction. In short, the types of solenoid valves under the application type are;

  • Direct-acting solenoid valves
  • Pilot operated solenoid valves

Pilot operated solenoid valves for sale.

Pilot-operated solenoid valves utilize the pressure difference between the outlet and inlet to open and close the valve. A diaphragm separates the inlet and outlet. The diaphragm has a hole that permits fluid flow to the upper chamber. The inlet pressure and the spring will ensure the valve remains closed for normally closed pilot-operated solenoid valves. The plunger closes the connection between the chamber and the outlet to close the valve. After energizing the solenoid valve, the pilot orifice opens, causing a pressure drop above the membrane. As a result, the pressure drop lifts the membrane, opening the valve.

The pressure chamber above the membrane acts as an amplifier, enabling a small solenoid to control large volumes of water. The minimum operating pressure differential required in this system is about 0.5 bars.

Normally closed solenoid valves

When the coil is energized in normally closed solenoid valves, the electromagnetic force pushes the plunger upwards, resisting the spring force. This opens the valve allowing flow. The valve is closed when the coils are de-energized. The plunger falls downwards, blocking the water flow path.

Normally opened solenoid valves.

Normally opened solenoid valves for sale are opposite to normally closed solenoid valves. The magnetic force pushes the plunger downwards when the coils are energized, closing the valve. However, when we cut the current supply to open the valve, the plunger is pulled by the spring to its original position.

Bi-stable solenoid valves

A momentary power supply can switch these latching solenoid valves. The plunger can stay in position without a power supply. They use permanent magnets to achieve this rather than springs.

Role of automatic irrigation in large irrigation projects

Automatic irrigation involves using sensors and irrigation timers to control water flow in the system automatically. Automated irrigation systems use a computer to control water and nutrient supply to the plants. Sensors and timers determine the appropriate time to irrigate. Solenoid valves are fast and can effectively manage water flow in the systems. Sensors or timers determine when it is time to irrigate the farm. An irrigation timer sends an electric current to the solenoid valves to start the irrigation process. The valve is opened depending on the solenoid type, allowing water to flow into the system.

Solenoid valves for sale can mix media in the system. This quality is beneficial for controlling fertiliser application in the system. To automate the fertigation systems, we use a three-way solenoid that allows the mixing of fluids. These valves need to operate with clean water, or clogging will occur. Clogging of solenoid valves results in leakages, reduced lifetime, and unreliable operation.

The advantages of using automatic irrigation in large irrigation projects are:

  1. There is water-saving – the systems deliver water at the right time and quantities saving on water.
  2. Energy-saving – automation reduces water use, eventually reducing pumping costs.
  3. Reduced labour costs – there is automatic watering, removing the need for many employees.
  4. Increased farming efficiency– the automatic irrigation system monitors the plants’ water and nutrient needs. This results in increased yield at the end of the season.
  5. Reduced pollution – the irrigation system applies fertiliser in the right quantities avoiding leaching into underground water sources.
  6. Time-saving – there is simultaneous watering of crops, saving time.

Role of solenoid valves for sale in precision irrigation

Precision irrigation is a form of irrigation where nutrients and water are supplied to the plants at the appropriate time and quantities. The increased world population has led to the continuous depletion of the already scarce natural resources. The number of mouths to feed has increased, with the resources needed to grow the food being the same. Precision irrigation reduces the burden on resources by efficiently using the minimal resources available.

The use of solenoid valves for sale in precision irrigation methods helps control water and nutrient supply to the plants. The types of precision irrigation methods are; surface irrigation, drip irrigation, sprinkler irrigation, and subsurface irrigation.

Application of solenoid valves for sale

Solenoid valves control fluid flow in systems, making them have many domestic and industrial applications. Some of the applications of solenoid valves for sale are:

  1. Irrigation systems use solenoid valves to control the flow of nutrients and water into the pipes.
  2. Refrigeration systems use solenoid valves to reverse the flow of the refrigerant, helping in cooling or heating depending on the season.
  3. Automatic locking doors use these valves to lock the doors.
  4. Washing machines and dishwashers use these valves to control water flow.
  5. Solenoid valves help control airflow in air conditioning systems.
  6. We use a float switch together with solenoid valves to control the inflow and outflow of water in tanks.
  7. Car washes to control the flow of water and soap.
  8. Industrial equipment uses solenoid valves to control the flow of water
  9. Dental equipment utilises these valves to control the fluid’s flow, pressure, and direction.

Selection criteria for solenoid valves for sale

The type of solenoid valves for sale available to choose is vital in determining the performance of the systems. We usually use these criteria to determine the type of valve to choose.

  1. Housing material – the type of housing material is selected based on the chemical properties of the fluid, the temperature of the liquid, and environmental factors. We use brass material for valves that use neutral media. Stainless steel has good chemical, temperature, and pressure resistance. PVC material is cost-effective.
  2. Type of solenoid valves – it is essential to know whether your system needs a three-way or two-way valve.
  3. Seal material – the selection of the seal material depends on the chemical properties and temperature of the media. The choice of the seal material affects its life span and performance.
  4. Voltage – Solenoid valves can use direct current (DC) or alternating current (AC). For instance, when using AC valves, the spring can overcome the force generated for a short period of time. This problem manifests as vibrations of the armature producing a humming sound. Hence, the vibrations cause stress on the valve causing leaks over time. The manufacturers place a shading ring around the armature to counter this problem. Accumulation of dirt particles on the armature affects the performance of the shading ring. It is essential to ensure the fluid is clean. Additionally, AC solenoid valves for sale can use direct current (DC), but you must limit the voltage and current.

    Other selection criteria

  • Valve function – normally closing or normally open valves are available under this criterion. The choice valve is dependent on the operation time. If the valve closing time is longer than the opening time, we use the normally open valve. If the valve opening time is longer than the closing time, we use normally closing valves.
  • Pressure – the selected valve must be able to withstand the maximum pressures of the system.
  • Operation type – this determines whether the application will need a direct or pilot-oriented solenoid valve.
  • Temperature – the valve materials selected should be able to withstand the minimum and maximum temperatures during application. Temperature affects the viscosity and flow of the fluid.
  • Response time – refers to the time it takes the solenoid valve to switch from opening to closing or vice versa. Small direct solenoid valves  react faster than pilot-oriented solenoid valves.
  • Approvals – ensuring the valve is appropriately certified depending on the application.
  • Application degree – the valve should have adequate protection against dust and contact.

Installation of automatic irrigation systems by Eunidrip Irrigation Systems.

At Eunidrip Irrigation Systems, we have the best specialist and equipment to help you automate your irrigation. Our prices are fair, and we make sure the customers get the best services. Automation equipment needed includes irrigation timers, solenoid valves, sensors, etc.,

Common problems encountered when using solenoid valves

Some of the common issues encountered while using solenoid valves are strange sounds while the valve is in use, the valve doesn’t open, the valve closing partially, problems with the coil, and lousy installation.

Strange sounds.

This occurs when the valve is in use during opening and closing. The reasons for the sound during opening and closing can be;

  1. A small gap between the electromagnetic coil and the plunger wall.
  2. The lock-nut of the coil is loose.
  3. The pressure difference between the inlet and outlet causes a wandering sound.
  4. As water under high pressure passes through a small hole in the pipe, it produces a hammering sound.

The valve doesn’t open.

The reasons that can cause the solenoid valves not to open are;

  1. Uneven water pressures.
  2. Dirt particles in the diagram.
  3. Corrosion of the valve.
  4. Power disconnection.
  5. One or two missing components.
  6. Burns in coils.
  7. Use of low voltage.

The valve partially closes.

Partial closing of solenoid valves occurs because many reasons. Reasons that can result in partial closing of the valves are;

  1. Pressure differences between the inlet and outlet
  2. The armature tube is damaged
  3. Manual override of the system.
  4. Residual magnetism in the solenoid valve.
  5. Damaged seals
  6. Lack of specific components.

Issues with the coil

The two significant issues experienced with electromagnetic coils are coil burning and also coil staying cold when power is turned on. The causes of this problem can be;

  1. Slow coil armatures.
  2. Short circuits.
  3. High temperatures of the fluid.
  4. Low voltages.

The farmer should ensure that the power supply is compatible with the rated coil supply voltage.  Subsequently, Check for humidity in the valve and replace the coils when necessary. You should replace the armature if it is damaged or bent to avoid having coil problems.

Poor installation.

The solenoid valves usually come indicated with arrows showing the direction of flow. However, you should install the solenoid valves in the right direction to avoid reverse pressures in the valve. Of course, the presence of reverse pressure will result in improperly closing the solenoid valve. You should install the valve horizontally or at a 300  angle. Solenoid valves installed vertically suffer from reliability issues.

Advantages of solenoid valves

  1. Leakage management – Solenoid valves can completely block external leaking and control internal leaking.
  2. They have a quick response time and are lightweight – these valves are small, saving room space. They also have a fast response time.
  3. Solenoid valves are simple, cheap, and accessible – their installation and maintenance are more straightforward than other valves.
  4. They have a wide application.

Maintenance of solenoid valves for sale.

With proper care, solenoid valves can serve for a long time before needing replacement also you should carry out maintenance practices regularly on the valves.

The standard maintenance procedure are;

  1. Disconnecting the power source and also depressurizing the system.
  2. Remove the coil and inspect the valve components. The seal should not be swollen, cracked, or damaged. You should also check on the spring for damage and also ensure the orifice body is okay.
  3. You should replace the worn-out part. In addition,  Lubrication is done on the valve to reduce wear and tear. If the solenoid valve uses water as a fluid, you should clean the valve regularly to avoid mineral buildup.  The water filter should also be clean to filter out the dirt particles.
Plastic mulch for sale

Plastic mulch for sale

Plastic mulch for sale

The world’s population has vastly increased in recent years. However, this increase has led to high demand for food. Briefly, In order to cope with the increased food demand we need to improve the efficiency of agriculture. One way of doing this is by mulching. To clarify, Mulching refers to laying materials on the soil to help provide a suitable growing environment for the plants.

Types of mulch


There are generally two types of mulch, i.e., organic mulch and plastic mulch.

Plastic mulch for sale 

Plastic mulch for sale utilizes polythene film to shield the plants from the elements hence the use of plastic mulch helps in smothering weeds, reduces water loss, and some types contain methyl bromide, an ozone deplete, in the soil. After covering the bed with film,  farmer plants seeds into the holes, later, user should place the plastic mulch after bed preparation is complete. Bed preparation activities include weed removal, fertilizer application, etc. However, the farmer should dig trenches around the bed and bury 3 to 4 inches of the paper mulch to secure it in place. Types of plastic mulch papers are clear mulch, black mulch, silver/ black mulch, photo-selective mulch, and biodegradable mulch.

Transparent mulch 

Clear mulch makes use of plastic films with no shade. The transparent film allows light and heat into the soil and retains the heat, warming up the earth. High heat trapped in the ground favors rapid root development. The transparent plastic mulch for sale helps in water retention and soil erosion control. These plastic films allow weeds to grow since they allow light to the soil surface. 

Black mulch

Black plastic mulch absorbs and retains warmth during the day, and the heat passes to the soil at points of contact. The advantage of good soil heating is proper root development. At night, the black mulch aids in retaining soil warmth. Since the mulch paper is dark, it doesn’t allow light in, inhibiting the growth of weeds. Also, black plastic mulch helps in frost, soil erosion, and runoff protection. Black paper mulch comes in thicknesses of 0.006 mm to 0.15 mm.

Silver/black mulch

Silver/ black paper mulch composes of one silver side and another black side. When placing the mulch paper, the silver side faces outside while the dark side faces the soil. The black side prevents light from reaching the earth helping in weed control and retaining soil warmth during the night. The silver side reflects the suns’ rays to the plants, increasing the even coloring of the fruits. The shiny side reflects light repelling insects and birds and keeps the ground temperatures low during the day. These types of plastic mulch for sale are suitable for use with melons, bananas, tomatoes, peppers, and leaf vegetables. 

Metallic mulch 

These types of plastic mulch for sale are composed of polythene sheeting coated with a thin layer of aluminum. The reflective surface wards off insects and assists in keeping the soil temperature low during the day. Insects repelled using this plastic mulch include aphids, whiteflies, and leafhoppers. The mulch also attracts many beneficial insects to the plants. Plants suitable for this mulch are tomatoes, melons, peppers, cucumbers, onions, and potatoes. It is not advisable to use metallic mulch on potatoes in cool temperatures and on eggplants. 


plastic mulch

Photo selective plastic films

These types of mulch papers can filter out specific light radiations. They also help in moisture retention, weed control, and soil erosion control. Types of photoselective plastic mulch for sale are:

  • Green mulch – they are green in color, and they increase the intensity of green light in the soil. The green color reduces visible light, reducing the photosynthesis of weeds and inhibiting their growth. They are more robust than black mulch and are suitable for ginger, strawberries, melons, tomatoes, eggplants, and peppers. The use of green mulch on eggplants and tomatoes increases the yields. 
  • Red mulch – red mulch can reflect infrared light to the plants stimulating the rapid growth and development of the plants. Apart from that, they also help in reducing weed growth and soil moisture retention. They are suitable for use in berries.

Bio-degradable plastic mulch

These types of plastic mulch for sale are made from polymers and are designed to biodegrade into the soil for examples, biodegradable material used in making these plastic mulches are corn starch. Additionally, the use of other plastic mulch leaves plastic waste after its usage. Thus, framers are encouraged to use these types of plastic mulch to reduce pollution. The mulch decomposition rate depends on the materials used, the soil dampness, microbial activity in the soil, and the design.

Plastic mulch for sale at Eunidrip irrigation systems

Eunidrip Irrigation Systems company holds professional staff who can advise farmers on what type of plastic mulch and plants to use on their farms. For instance, our plastic mulch for sale offers an effective way to conserve soil moisture, control weed growth, and raise soil temperatures. The available sizes of black/ silver paper mulch are 23, 30, 60, and 80 microns. To emphasis, we do not recommend using transparent plastic mulch in Kenya due to the high temperatures experienced. 

Prices of plastic mulches for sale 

Plastic mulch costs
Size Price /m2
30 micronsKES 18
60 micronsKES 30
80 micronsKES 43

The choice of size of plastic mulch for sale to use depends on the farmer’s budget, the number of seasons, and the crop location. 

Drip irrigation and plastic mulch 

Drip irrigation is a precision irrigation method that helps conserve water hence, use of drip irrigation utilizes up to 95% of the water applied. specifically, the system uses drip emitters to deliver the water to the crops’ root zone, maximizing water use. The emitters are sensitive to dirt particles; hence a water filter is necessary. Advantages of using this method of irrigation are:

  • Reduced water loss – there are few water losses to the environment.
  • Controlled weed growth – water is delivered only at the root zone, limiting weeds’ growth.
  • Energy-saving – reduced water usage means reduced pumping costs. 
  • Water-saving  – this method is efficient enabling water saving
  • Efficient fertilizer use – the system only delivers nutrients to the plants. 

Finally, by combining drip irrigation and plastic mulch, a framer can significantly increase the yields on their farm. The two methods help in moisture control and weed growth.  

How to lay plastic mulch and drip lines on the farm

The process of laying down plastic mulch involves five basic operations. These are bund making, drip pipe laying, mulch paper laying, soil covering, and hole punching. To illustrate, plastic mulch for sale can be laid manually or using mulch laying machines. However, Manual laying is time-consuming and requires a lot of labor. Hence, the need of mulch laying machines like tractor-drawn which can carry out the five operations quickly. The use of mechanized plastic mulch laying saves on labor costs and time.

Working principle of mulch laying machines 

Mulch laying machines carry out the five processes simultaneously as the tractor moves. Firstly Before starting the operation, the paper tip and drip tip are placed under the press wheel and fixed at the end. Secondly, as the tractor moves, the bund-making frame makes the soil bed. Thirdly, the farmer places the drip line under the mulch paper and unwinds the two simultaneously. fourthly, after setting the paper mulch, the hoeing blades cover the edges of the paper mulch with soil securing it in place. Finally,  a punching tool makes holes in the plastic mulch paper as the tractor is moves.



At Eunidrip, we’re passionate about helping Kenyan farmers succeed. That’s why we not only offer top-notch irrigation systems, but also valuable resources like plastic mulch! To address your questions, we’ve compiled this helpful FAQ:

Plastic mulch is a sheet of material, typically polyethylene, laid between rows of crops. It helps conserve moisture, suppress weeds, regulate soil temperature, and boost yield.

Kenya’s diverse climate can be challenging for farmers. Plastic mulch helps:

  • Reduce water evaporation: This is crucial in dry areas, promoting water conservation and reducing irrigation needs.
  • Control weeds: No more backbreaking weeding! Plastic mulch blocks sunlight, hindering weed growth and saving you time and labor.
  • Regulate soil temperature: Black mulch absorbs heat, warming the soil for early planting and extending the growing season. White mulch reflects heat, keeping soil cool for heat-sensitive crops.
  • Improve fruit quality: By suppressing weeds and preventing soil contact, plastic mulch reduces fruit blemishes and increases yield.

We offer a variety of plastic mulch options to suit your needs:

  • Black: Ideal for warming the soil and increasing early crop growth.
  • White: Perfect for reflecting heat and protecting heat-sensitive crops.
  • Biodegradable: Eco-friendly option that decomposes over time, reducing plastic waste.
  • Perforated: Allows some water and air penetration, suitable for heavier soils.

Consider factors like your crop type, climate, soil conditions, and desired outcomes. Our Eunidrip experts are happy to advise you on the best choice for your needs.

Center pivot irrigation

center pivot irrigation systems

Center pivot irrigation consists of a single sprayer or a sprinkler pipeline supported above the ground by towers that rotate about a pivot using wheels. Water application varies across the length of the lateral. In addition, More water is applied in areas near the pivot than areas further from the pivot. The pivot irrigation achieves this using small sprinklers near the pivot and more giant sprinklers on the other end. moreover, center pivot irrigation systems are fully mechanized and automated, and they operate at either low or medium pressures.

Best Center pivot irrigation installation Company in Kenya

As a Kenyan-based leader in Pivot Irrigation Systems, Eunidrip Irrigation Systems specializes in designing and installing cutting-edge pivot systems across Eastern Africa. Our expertise extends to Turn-Key projects, encompassing the installation of pivots, pumps, pipelines, and electrical systems. Eunidrip Irrigation Systems stands as the exclusive supplier of Center Pivots in Kenya, extending our reach to cater to pivot needs throughout East Africa.


Recognizing the uniqueness of each pivot requirement, Eunidrip Irrigation Systems collaborates closely with clients to customize systems based on location and specific irrigation needs. Our process involves meticulous site mapping, water source identification, and the development of a bespoke design. With pivot installations ranging from 1 hectare to 121 hectares in East Africa, we accommodate projects of all sizes and shapes. Our tailored approach includes various spans that adapt to the field’s dimensions. Eunidrip Irrigation Systems remains committed to client satisfaction, seeing each project through to completion.

Components of a center pivot irrigation

The components of center pivot irrigation are;

Irrigation pipeline

These contain water emitters that distribute water and come in diameters ranging from 140 mm to 250 mm. The choice of diameter to use depends on the length of the pipeline and system flow. Standard diameters of irrigation pipelines are 160 mm and 200 mm. The length of the pipeline ranges from 50 m to 750 m. The irrigation pipeline is composed of galvanized light steel or aluminum for strength. Usually, the irrigation pipelines are placed at a minimum height of 3 m above the ground and spread at distances of 35 m to 40 m lengthwise. Though the standard span used is 40 m.

Water emitters

Water emitters are spaced at distances of 1.5 m to 3m along the pipeline, depending on the sprinkler type and coverage. Modern center pivots irrigation uses Low Energy Precision Application (LEPA) mode. LEPA irrigation methods refer to low-pressure irrigation methods supplying uniform and small-frequent water at or near the soil surface.  These low-pressure irrigation methods in center pivots use angle mist sprayers, bubblers, and sprayers. These three are fit on hose drips hanging from the laterals. Bubblers are placed at the height of 20 cm to 45 cm, while sprayers at 1 m to 1.8 m.

We connect hose drips by gooseneck to the lateral, and the operating pressures range from  0.5 bars to 1.5 bars. The gooseneck and hose drips are connected alternately on the laterals to balance out the stresses on the line. Discharge along the pipeline varies, with more release at the end of the pipeline than near the pivot. We fit gun sprinklers at the end of the pipeline.

Central tower

This is a structure with a height ranging from 3.5 m to 4.5 m anchored to a concrete platform. It uses angular galvanized steel profiles for strength and carries equipment necessary for controlling the system. Equipment carried on the control tower are inlets for fertilizer injection, a control panel, and a collector ring.

Control panel

The control panel enables center pivot irrigation machine handling and programming. It controls the flow, pipeline movement, speed per lap, and operation times of the center pivot. The control panel uses voltmeters to indicate and control tension. A standard control panel comes with an automatic starter, hour counter, and automatic shut-offs.


They enable the movement of the pivot mechanism in the farm

A-frame towers

These support the irrigation pipeline above the ground. A-frame towers make use of lightweight galvanized steel or aluminum.

Spare parts for center pivot irrigation

The damaged or worn-out parts in center pivot irrigation need to be replaced as soon as possible for adequate irrigation. There are various spare parts in the market for pivot irrigation. Some of the common spare parts are;

  1. Control panel – considered to be the brain of the system. It is attached to the pivot point and gives commands on time to irrigate, what quantities to use, and the speed of rotation.
  2. Span – these are long pipes between the drive units. They carry the sprinklers and are connected with the supporting structure of trusses to hold the weight between the A-towers.
  3. Tower box – they are located at each drive unit. The work of the tower box is to tell the machine how to move, the direction, and the duration.
  4. Pivot point – This is where water enters the pivot pipes and the control panel’s location.
  5. Drive unit – the drive unit refers to the part of the pivot irrigation that makes contact with the ground. It is composed of a base beam, drive train, wheels, and various structural supports.

How center pivot irrigation works

Center pivot irrigation can supply water, fertilizer, chemicals, and herbicides. This versatility helps improve the efficiency of irrigation practices by using one machine to perform several functions. Most pivot systems use generators or power from the electrical grid to run the system. The power enables the safety circuit and the forward and reverse movement of the drive unit.

The pivot control panel operates the main functions of the machine. Depending on the control panel, different pivots will have various controls. for instance, when a farmer feeds a command to the control panel, electrical signals travel down the pivot to the last regular drive unit. Afterwards, the control panel directs the drive unit to move forward or backward depending on the instructions. Thirdly, the pivot moves led by the last drive unit until the switch arm connecting the last span to the second last tower is pulled to an angle, activating the next tower.  both towers move, starting tower after tower until the whole system moves. The center pivot system uses two types of sprinklers, i.e., impact sprinklers and spray heads, to supply water as it moves around. The stopping process starts with the tower furthest from the pivot and continues up to the nearest tower.

Pressure ratings of center pivot irrigation

Center pivot irrigation systems need to operate at the correct pressures. High pressures above the designed pressures result in increased operating expenses. Pressures below the design pressures result in uneven water distribution. Reasons for water pressure fluctuations in the system are;

  1. Change in groundwater level – decreased groundwater level will result in low pressures in the system.
  2. Leaks – occurrence of leaks decreases the water pressure in the pipeline
  3. Topography – a downward sloping topography will result in more water at the gun ends, whereas an uphill topography will result in more water near the pivot.

Pressure gauges are installed along the pipeline length to monitor the pressure changes and make it easier to detect issues. Pressure regulation is to control fluctuating pressures in the laterals. They use flow control nozzles and pressure regulators to maintain steady water flow out of the sprinklers.

Flow control nozzles

Flow control nozzles contain a flexible disc that acts as an orifice. When the water pressures are low in the pipeline, the disc remains flat, allowing water to flow freely. As the pressure of water increases, the disc bulges outwards, reducing the opening size. The bulging, in turn, reduces the flow of water through the orifice. Flow control nozzles don’t start controlling water up to pressures of over 35 psi, limiting their use to high-pressure systems.

Pressure regulators

They work by maintaining the present pressure in the sprinklers. In other words, when the pressures are low, the distance between the movable barrel and the fixed seat is large due to the force exerted by the spring. In such a position, the sprinkler flow rate is undisturbed. As pressure increases, the barrel is forced towards the fixed seat, reducing water flow in the sprinklers. Restriction of flow to the sprinkler stabilizes the pressure applied to them, producing a more constant flow rate than inflow control nozzles.

We base the selection of a pressure regulator to use on the design operating pressure of the system. Pressure regulators operate at arrange of 10 psi to 50 psi. When choosing the proper regulator, the operating system pressure should not exceed the regulator pressure by more than 50 psi.

Procedure to undertake when installing center pivot irrigation.

The procedure for the installation of center pivot irrigation is as follows;

  1. Land preparation – this process involves activities carried out before assembling the components. Practices done at this time are slope determination, pivot pad construction, and finding the center of the farm.
  2. Pivot point assembly – involves the assembly of the pivot point. To fasten the metals together, we make use of bolts and nuts. The technician should tighten the pivot point last.
  3. Span assembly – the operating temperatures of water should not go below 20 C, or the machinery will ice up, resulting in failures.
  4. Receiver and tower assembly – the technician should follow bolt tightening procedures to avoid structural failure.
  5. Electrical – involves connecting the control panel to the electric grid. It would be best if you properly ground the machine before applying power to the main control panel.
  6. Machine operation training.

Suitable crops for center pivot irrigation

We mainly use center pivot irrigation for crops that are grown on large farms and are not affected by water on their leaves. Plants like tomatoes are not suitable for irrigating by this method since they are sensitive to water.  Examples of crops grown using pivot irrigation are; sugarcane, orchards, maize, potatoes, small grains, alfalfa, and vegetable crops.

Eunidrip irrigation systems as a supplier of pivot irrigation systems

At Eunidrip irrigation systems, we deal with irrigation equipment, including center pivot irrigation systems. We install and supply the materials needed nationwide. Interested clients can make orders through our online shop, or if they are in Nakuru town, they can always visit our shop.

Other than Center pivot irrigation, we also deal with;

  • The entire drip system (All products used and installation)
  • Overhead irrigation (Installation and material supply)
  • Greenhouse construction
  • Solar dryer building
  • Net house and shade house construction
  • Dam lining
  • Borehole drilling

Capital costs and operational cost of center pivot irrigation.

Center pivot irrigation is fully mechanized, automatic, and done on large farms. Capital costs refer to the cost of starting up the scheme, e.g., cost of materials, construction costs, earth movement costs, etc. Operational costs refer to expenses incurred while the pivot irrigation operates, e.g., maintenance and repair costs.  Pivot irrigation has high capital and operating costs; hence, the farmer needs to monitor his/her investment money to ensure the best irrigation choice.

Estimation of annual irrigation costs.

To compute the annual ownership cost, we add the sum of depreciation cost, interest, repair cost, taxes, and insurance in a year.  The repair costs consist of the well cost and pivot costs. Center pivot irrigation uses machinery, and like every other machinery, they depreciate over time. We subtract the salvage cost from the original charges to obtain the depreciation cost. Labor costs and power costs account for the total operational costs in a year.

Large scale irrigation methods

There are four main irrigation types used worldwide, i.e., surface irrigation, sprinkler irrigation, drip/trickle irrigation, and sub-surface irrigation.

Surface irrigation

Surface irrigation involves allowing water to flow naturally by gravity over the land. In this case, there are three main types of surface irrigation methods, i.e., basin irrigation, furrow irrigation, and border irrigation. These methods of irrigation are suitable for areas with clayey soils. Basin irrigation makes use of bunds in a farm. The water floods the areas between the bunds of land. Furrow irrigation uses long trenches to contain the water from water sources. Border irrigation uses water supplied between strips of land using gates or pipes.

Advantages of surface irrigation are;

  1. There is easy management, and modern technology is not necessary
  2. It is a cost-effective method of irrigating

Disadvantages of using this system are:

  1. It requires a lot of water.
  2. A farmer cannot use these methods with high infiltration rate soils.
  3. There are no drainage outlets.
  4. Crops number limitation.

Sprinkler irrigation

This irrigation method involves releasing water to the plants in the form of artificial rain. Sprinklers operate under high pressures, hence the need for pumps. Filtered the water used  to avoid blockages of the sprinkler nozzles. A farmer must regularly maintain the sprinklers for effective water distribution. Some of the maintenance practices are;

  1. Regular checking of the washer at the bottom of the bearings
  2. Avoiding using lubricants on the sprinkler as it will cause blockages
  3. Removing dirt particles from coupling grooves

Advantages of sprinkler irrigation are;

  1. It helps in water conservation
  2. This method is cost-effective
  3. There is uniform water distribution
  4. We can use sprinkler irrigation on all terrains.

Disadvantages of sprinkler irrigation are;

  1. The system is not suitable for use in windy areas
  2. Sprinkler irrigation is not suitable for crops like tomatoes and beans.

Drip irrigation

This method of irrigation utilizes emitters to supply water to the plants. The drip emitters are sensitive to particles; hence clean water is needed. The system makes use of a filter to remove dirt particles from the irrigation water.  The emitters’ spacing is at a fixed distance, having a maximum flow of 2 liters per hour. However, the choice of dripline depends on the plants to be grown. In this case, trickle irrigation is an effective way of conserving irrigation water and is considered a precision irrigation method. Water used mainly flows to the crops using gravity.

Advantages of drip irrigation

  1. Soil erosion reduction
  2. The system has minimal operational costs
  3. There is weed control using this method.
  4. Efficient use of water and nutrients
  5. Increased crop yields
  6. Water flow by gravity reduces the energy cost.

Disadvantages of this system are:

  1. The emitters are prone to blockage by dirty water. A farmer can easily solve emitter blockage by cleaning the filters after using them for some time.
  2. The initial cost is high.
  3. Salinity problems.

Sub-surface irrigation

We can group this system into two, i.e., natural and artificial sub-surface irrigation. Artificial irrigation uses polythene pipes to deliver water directly to the plants in the soil layers. Natural sub-surface irrigation depends on water seeping from streams or lakes to the plants. In other words, the tubes used should be laid at depths of more than 40 cm. The farmer should filter the water to avoid clogging the drip lines.

Advantages of  sub-surface irrigation

  1. A farmer avoids water loss by evaporation using this system.
  2. There is a high degree of control of irrigation water.
  3. This method is applicable in windy and sunny regions.

Disadvantages of sub-surface irrigation.

  1. Heavy machinery can damage the pipes.
  2. Rodents or root hairs can damage the pipes.
  3. There is a risk of emitter clogging

Environmental impact of center pivot irrigation

The world’s population keeps increasing yearly, and the demand for more food increases. Center pivot irrigation can irrigate vast areas helping in food production worldwide. With limited land, irrigation is the best way to ensure adequate food production within the available space.

Center pivot irrigation has a significant effect on the environment. significantly, the irrigation system utilizes a lot of water draining aquifers in areas.  Pesticides and fertilizers are usually used in this system, which can result in water table pollution.

Advantages of center pivot irrigation

  1. The automated system reduce labor costs.
  2. There is the easy application of fertilizer and herbicides, saving on time and costs.
  3. Pivot irrigation is very reliable as the machine covers a large area. Likewise, advanced systems have GIS and GPS systems that determine the right amounts of water to apply in specific places.

Disadvantages of center pivot irrigation

  1. This system is not suitable for irrigating rectangular fields alone as some areas will receive insufficient water.
  2. The center pivot irrigation systems are costly to install and maintain. This issue and the required land size make the design unsuitable for small-scale farmers.
  3. Natural factors such as wind affect water distribution. In short, heat also results in water losses through evaporation, reducing irrigation efficiency.

Maintenance of center pivot irrigation

Lack of proper operation and maintenance of irrigation systems cause problems that can lead to improper water application. Results of improper water application are yield losses, disease spreading, nutrient losses due to leaching, and water runoff. For instance, to effectively maintain center pivots irrigations. Subsequently,  the following practices are essential.

  1. The farmer should ensure that the pivot operates at the required pressures for the designated sprinklers. to clarify, this enables the system to avoid damage by excess pressure.
  2. A farmer should replace the nozzles after referring to the pivot sprinklers chart. Most importantly, you should choose the right size of the nozzle to ensure the proper working conditions of the sprinklers.
  3. Ensuring that the speed of pivot and revolution time correspond with the amount of water required.
  4. Before starting the system, a farmer should check for leaks, missing sprinkler heads, and clogged or worn-out nozzles.
  5. If working with a variable rate irrigation system, you should check that the solenoid valves are operating correctly and the electronics have not sustained any damage.

In conclusion, by doing all these, center pivot irrigation systems can assure maximum yields.


Imagine a towering sprinkler system rotating around a central point, watering your crops in a circular pattern. That’s a center pivot! It’s ideal for large, uniform fields like maize, wheat, and sugarcane.

Here are some compelling reasons:

  • Uniform Coverage: Every corner of your field gets the same amount of water, preventing dry patches and boosting yields.
  • Water Efficiency: Center pivots minimize water waste by delivering water directly to plant roots, saving you money and conserving a precious resource.
  • Labor Savings: Say goodbye to tedious hand watering! Center pivots automate irrigation, freeing up your time for other tasks.
  • Scalability: Whether you have a few hectares or several hundred, center pivots adapt to your farm size.

The cost depends on several factors, including field size, system features, chosen materials, and installation complexity. Expect to invest between Ksh. 5 million and Ksh. 20 million or more.

Absolutely! We are the leading experts in center pivot irrigation installation in Kenya. Our team will handle everything, from site assessment and system design to installation and maintenance. We also offer comprehensive training to ensure you operate your system efficiently.

Regular inspections and preventive maintenance are key to maximizing the lifespan of your system. Eunidrip offers affordable maintenance plans to keep your center pivot running smoothly.