IRRIGATION SYSTEM FOR AVOCADO TREE.
Avocado fruits play an important role in the human diet. Because of their ingredients are very healthy and protective against a number of diseases, there is need for irrigation system for avocado tree. They are known to contain several health-promoting components, such as vitamins, essential minerals, antioxidants and fibers. These fruit crops allow efficient utilization of resources like land, water, labor and agricultural inputs, resulting in higher income per unit of available resource while maintaining and developing the natural resource base. The contribution of fruits towards diversification of the economy of the country is also enormous.
Irrigation system for avocado tree is very effective and possible since most fruit crops are planted in rows that enables the movement of water supply pipes and irrigation equipment for watering the fruits. For the growth of fruit crops, we selected critical plan that requires organized strategy and order to garner in more output hence it requires guidance which includes;
Selecting the best kind of fruits to your farm.
From the reconnaissance survey, we find out that before adopting any new avocado fruit types, it is important that farmers isolate a small portion of land, plant the variety and observe its characteristics. Check if the variety is prone to lodging (falling due to wind) if the ears open early before maturity, which allows water and rotting, the yield and any other negative characteristic.
When you have established that the variety is good, proceed to large-scale production. This advice is given to caution farmers against buying new seed varieties (which may not have the desired qualities) as may be claimed by seed companies or seed stockiest.
Good management of avocado tree through the production phases is important. Low soil fertility, soil acidity, late land preparation and planting, poor weeding and even using the wrong planting methods can contribute to low maize yields.
What to consider when selecting the best irrigation system for avocado tree.
We found out that there are some factors to consider first before installing irrigation system on the farm. Farmers who are considering the purchase of an irrigation system for their fruits must consider many factors. These may include issues relating to:
Labor and expertise.
Expertise and labor is very critical when doing preparation for drip irrigation this may include skilled or non-skilled these go along with the culture of a specific community in and around the farm.
Labor is a major component of production and its cost determine the success or failure of your enterprise
2.Suitable irrigation water
These crops (Avocado fruit) require water that is clean and free of sediments, algae, fertilizer deposits and undissolved chemical particles. Dripping water to individual plants also means that the method can be very efficient in water use. For this reason, it is most suitable when water is plenty. Water considerations such as availability, quantity, quality, costs to develop a water supply, and annual crop water requirements,
3.Types of avocado tree varieties.
Crop considerations such as yield potential, frost protection requirements, and cultural practices relating to planting, pest management, and harvesting
4.Security of the area.
The farm should be well secured from thieves, stray animals, rodents and other disease-causing organisms
5.Pests and diseases
Although avocado fruit is a relatively pest-free crop to grow, the removal of these treatments may have an impact in the future. Insecticide dressings can be applied at drilling/planting and there is a fungicide dressing to prevent rotting of the new buds.
This land should offer ease of access to relevant infrastructure, like electricity, good road network airports to allow ease of moving farm inputs and produce. System considerations such as the type of power supply, labor requirements and availability, and initial capital and annual operating costs are also important aspect to consider.
7.Nature of land slope.
Field considerations such as soil type, drainage, erosion potential, location of power sources, topography (including pumping lifts), and distance from water supplies.
These fruits are perennial crop that require large amounts of water to carry out their physiological functions. A water stress of the plants affects negatively the vegetative growth, the production and the quality of the such fruits.
When the soil moisture is insufficient to meet the water needs of the passion fruit plants, it is necessary to supply additional amounts of water through irrigation techniques. And the most efficient technique for this purpose is drip irrigation system using button drippers.
Button drippers are irrigation tools often use in supplying water to plants at very low rates. Generally, they are drip emitters that ensure delivery of water to the plants below their canopies (below the stem). Button drippers come in various color codes i.e. black, green, blue, red and green colors. Even though they come in these color codes, their efficiencies are of the same notch. Colors do not affect the functionality but they are just for identification
As the recent tools venturing into irrigation systems for avocado tree fruits, they are capable of emitting water from the main pipes at different rates of 1 liter per hour to over 60 liters per hour.
Because of this ability to emit water at different rates, they are not only good for irrigation system farming of avocado but also passion fruits, oranges, mangoes, tomato trees, and avocados, lawn irrigation, tree nurseries’ banana trees and more other sectors. Button drippers specification is very important for an irrigation engineer since it helps to estimate water requirements for the entire season for the growth of crops. This estimate also helps in sourcing in water in case of shortage
Components of button drippers
- Button dripper is of plastic polyethylene in nature selling in packets or pieces. The wall thickness typically ranges from 1 mm–1.3 mm.
- Thicker wall drippers are commonly for permanent subsurface drip irrigation whereas thinner walled tapes are for temporary type systems common in high-value crops
- Button dripper is design to discharge one liter of water per hour to over 60 liters of water per hour. This discharge ensures efficient and economical water usage.
- the major determinant of the production cost is the economical water budget and this dictates the type of crop
However, Broad leaved plants require much water as compared to small leaved plants. This will affect the button dripper water discharge capacity selection
Types of button drippers
- Adjustable button drippers – these drippers have threads on the crown where the lid with emitters is slide onto. The threads are made in such a way that at every thread, water is emitted at different flow rates according to water plant requirements.
- Non- adjustable button drippers. In this type of dripper, water is emitted at the designed rate by the manufacturer. The crown does not have the threads thus it does not have a lid however, this type of drippers provide water equally and uniformly to plants.
How button dripper works
Button dripper uses the swirling -flow-path design producing a turbulent flow that ensures good watering abilities thus preventing the known problems of clogging. They are Available in flow rates of 0.7 liters per to over 60 liters per hour. The operating pressure range of 15 to 25 PSI (and the higher pressure the higher the flow rate)
When buying the button drip emitters, you can find them in packets of 5, 25, 50 and 100, each with a either 16mm or 12mm adapter and small nipple outlet.
Areas of applications of button drippers for Irrigation System For Avocado Tree
- an individual plant (passion fruits, oranges, mangoes, tomato trees, and avocados, lawn irrigation, tree nurseries’ banana trees)
- planter boxes,
- large pots
- ground covers
- Extensive land leveling is not a must since drip irrigation can be employed in all landscapes;
- Reduction of water loses and maximizing water use efficiency.
- Soil conditions can be taken into account to a maximum extent and soil erosion risk due to irrigation water impact can be reduced to a minimum;
- high efficiency of fertilizer and nutrients usage since water is application is locally (reduction of groundwater contamination risk);
- Minimization of Weed growth as water and nutrients delivery is only to the cultivated plant;
- Positive impact on seed germination and yield development;
DATA ANALYSIS AND REPORTS.
The following data were obtained for fruits crops irrigation system for the area coverage of 710 meters by 770 meters under passion fruit irrigation
Total area of land 710mx770= 546,700m2
Area under cultivation=86.12mx347x16=478,138.2
Area not under irrigation (546,700-478,138.24) =68,561.76m2
|Water requirement per day||10mm/day|
|Life cycle||6 months|
|Irrigation time||3hrs of hose flow rate of 3m3/hr|
|Irrigation interval||72 hours interval|
Materials and fittings specifications required for Irrigation System For Avocado Tree
|System hydrant (G.I)
|System control valves|